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Showing 1 to 5 of 16 blog articles.
284 views · 1 weeks ago

![Is PHP a dying language](https:/ /cdn.filestackcontent.com/7GkCdoJKRfGM14qi7baA)

It seems like this question gets asked every year, as for some reason the perception surrounding PHP is that it is a language used by hobbyists, or a dying language - a programming language on its way out.

Before we take a look at "is PHP being used less," let's start with some critical points to consider when choosing a programming language to learn/ invest in.

### PHP powers ~80% of the web

The first point is how popular PHP is as a program language. Recently in a podcast a debate around PHP was raised, with the question being is it an "enterprise" language. The argument against PHP is that it is not widely adopted by enterprises for enterprise application development - or apps that are traditionally developed in Java or .Net.

The key here is understanding that every tool has its strengths and weaknesses, and there are times where using a compiled language such as Java is a smarter move than using PHP. As always, you want to choose the right tool for the job, and PHP as a programming language excels for web applications. That's why today it powers nearly 80% of the websites on the internet! I want to repeat that number, nearly 80% of websites on the internet!

In the podcast, after the initial argument that PHP was not an enterprise language, I had one question to ask - "can you name one enterprise that doesn't use PHP?" Despite the misconception that PHP is not an enterprise language, nearly every enterprise utilizes PHP in some fashion (many for their website, blog, or internal tools). While PHP may not power the app they offer as a service (although for many companies it does), it powers just as critical of offerings that help drive success for the company.

### PHP made Yahoo, Facebook, and Tumblr possible

It's not just personal blogs running on a WordPress install, or small sites running on Drupal (btw, both of these power high traffic, well known web properties), but PHP actually makes development for the web easier and faster. Because it is not a compiled language and is designed to scale, companies are able launch faster, add new features as they go, and grow to enormous scale.

Some of the sites that started with PHP include Yahoo, Facebook, Tumblr, Digg, Mailchimp, and Wikipedia! But it's not just older platforms that started off and have grown to scale with PHP - Etsy, Slack, Baidu, Box, and Canva also got started with PHP! [Read why Slack chose PHP](https:/ /slack.engineering/taking-php-seriously/)

In fact, according to [BuiltWith](https:/ /trends.builtwith.com/framework/PHP), PHP powers 53.22% of the top 10k websites!

### Programming languages don't just disappear

Understanding the prevalence of PHP today, and how often it is used is critical to understanding the longevity of PHP. Despite the radicalized idea, programming languages (and thus programming jobs) do not just disappear overnight. Today you can still find jobs writing code used in mainframes - such as Fortran or Cobol.

As long as companies have applications that use PHP, they'll need someone who knows PHP to maintain the application. And with PHP actively being developed and maintained (PHP 8 having just been released), and PHP powerhouses like WordPress, Drupal, SugarCRM, and others powering websites and apps around the world, it's a safe bet PHP won't be going anywhere anytime soon.

But with the basics out of the way, let's look at how PHP has faired over the years.

## PHP usage over the years

While there is no exact measurement that determines how programming languages are ranked, there are several different rankings we can look at to see how a language has evolved over the years, and where it ranks today.

### GitHub's most popular programming languages

Every year GitHub releases a report of the most popular languages being used to create repositories on GitHub.com. While this isn't an exact way to quantify a programming language, it does help us understand what languages developers are using and promoting for their applications. It also helps us see how lively the community itself is.

In 2014, PHP was ranked as the 3rd most popular programming language, being beat out only by JavaScript and Java. With the emergence of Typescript, C# moving open source, and increased usage of Python for AI - PHP did drop - and was the 6th most popular programming language on GitHub for 2020.

![PHP on GitHub over the years](https:/ /cdn.filestackcontent.com/LVRkr9gRyWp9kN9kzJ3T)

### PHP's ranking on the Tiobe index

Another index for software popularity is the Tiobe index, which bases their ratings off of the number of search engines for programming languages. This index is heavily relied on by companies when making programming and investment decisions, especially in developer marketing.

Like with GitHub, PHP has also seen a decline in the Tiobe index. Ranked 8th last year for all languages, PHP dropped to 9th place, being outranked by the C languages (C, C#, C++), Java, Visual Basic, Python, JavaScript, and Assembly. However, to put the rankings in contrast, PHP is 9th out of the 274 languages Tiobe tracks, and bests SQL, Ruby, Groovy, Go, and Swift.

You can see the latest Tiobe index (updated monthly) at: [https:/ /www.tiobe.com/tiobe-index/](https:/ /www.tiobe.com/tiobe-index/)

### PHP's ranking on BuiltWith

The last model we'll look at is [BuiltWith](https:/ /trends.builtwith.com/framework/PHP). BuiltWith scans website headers to determine what a website is powered by, and like GitHub and Tiobe provides a ranking of programming language popularity and trends.

Builtwith provides an interesting perspective in that we can see an explosion of sites being built with PHP (nearly tripling from 2013 to 2016) before dropping and normalizing in 2017. From 2017 to present, the number of sites using PHP has remained almost constant.

![BuiltWith PHP Usage](https:/ /cdn.filestackcontent.com/bruZQIefQm6XdUMxpfre)

This suggests (as with what we've seen with GitHub and Tiobe) that other languages have grown in popularity, such as JavaScript and Node.js. This doesn't mean that PHP is no longer being used or relied or, but rather that there is more competition and that there are other viable options whereas PHP stood alone at times in terms of being the goto language for web development.

Indeed, when we look at how PHP ranks amongst all technologies on BuiltWith, PHP receives the following BuiltWith awards:

• The most popular on the Entire Internet in Frameworks category.

• The most popular in the Top 10k sites in Frameworks category.

• The most popular in the Top 100k sites in Frameworks category.

• The most popular in the Top 1 Million sites in Frameworks category.

## Conclusion

PHP's popularity has dropped from its height 10 years ago, however it still remains the most popular programming language powering the web. It's important to remember that every tool has pros and cons, and some of the bad rap PHP gets is when compared to languages designed to accomplish tasks or build programs that PHP was never designed to.

It's also important to remember a lot of early criticism for PHP came from it being a procedural programming language and not encompassing Object Oriented Programming capabilities. These capabilities were added in PHP 4 and with PHP 7 & 8 OOP has become a staple of the PHP language.

PHP is a viable, powerful language used by nearly every enterprise and many businesses large and small. In fact it powers over 50% of the top 10,000 websites on the web! With such large usage, popular tools such as WordPress, and an active community, it is safe to assume that PHP will remain a prominent language for years to come.

1636 views · 9 months ago

![](https:/ /cdn.filestackcontent.com/vQJAo2oUSGivid9AqVtT)

People that visit your website face an invisible threat each time they log on. Small businesses are especially vulnerable to digital data breaches, and that can change the way your customers feel about you. But, although you cannot stop hackers from trying, there are things you can do as a business owner to make your website a safer experience for everyone. Keep reading for tips.

### Mature digitally.

You may be ahead of the times when it comes to products and services, but, chances are, your website hasn't fully kept up. It's time to learn all you can about the internet and digital security. If you are already somewhat tech savvy, a [PHP Security Course](https:/ /nomadphp.com/courses/php-security) from Nomad PHP can help you better understand everything from cryptography to website error messages.

Adapting to today's digital environment means transforming your website to quickly and easily identify threats via machine learning and network monitoring. And, as Upwork explains, digital [maturity](https:/ /www.upwork.com/resources/accelerating-your-digital-transformation-in-2020) not only keeps your website safe, but adopting this mindset can also increase your efficiency and accuracy by reducing human errors.

### Understand the threats.

It is not enough to simply keep up with your website, you also have to understand the types of threats that are out there. You're likely familiar with ransomware and phishing, but, it's also a good idea to know how a website can get hacked. Your site's content management system and vulnerabilities within your operating system are all [weak points](https:/ /www.weborion.io/blog/five-ways-a-website-can-be-hacked/) that hackers can easily identify.

### Insist on security measures.

When customers log into your website, they input their credentials. Each time they do so, you can best protect their information by keeping your systems up to date. You'll also want to ensure that your site is hosted on a secure service and that you have an [SSL certificate](https:/ /us.norton.com/internetsecurity-how-to-ssl-certificates-what-consumers-need-to-know.html) installed.

If you are not already, have your IT department or managed IT services perform regular website security checks. PhoenixNAP, an IT services provider, notes that those websites working via WordPress should also be safely outfitted with the most recent [security plug-ins](https:/ /phoenixnap.com/blog/how-to-secure-a-website).

### Eliminate spam.

If your website allows for comments that are not manually approved, anyone on the internet can post. This leaves it open for hackers and other unscrupulous individuals to [comment with spam](https:/ /www.shivarweb.com/2450/my-blog-comment-spam-is-too-high-heres-why/) and malicious links that your customers may inadvertently click on. While many of these simply exist as a way for the commenter to [drive traffic](https:/ /www.wordstream.com/blog/ws/2014/08/14/increase-traffic-to-my-website) to another website, others are designed to draw your readers' attention, gain their trust, and access their personal information.

### Prioritize passwords.

Your customers' passwords are the keys by which they open the door to your website. Unfortunately, many people do not treat them with as much care as they do the keys they use in the non-digital world.

It's true, passwords can be a pain, but you are not doing yourself or your customers any favors by allowing simple one-word passcodes to access your site. Instead, design your site to require a strong password. How-To Geek asserts that this will have a [minimum of 12 characters](https:/ /www.howtogeek.com/195430/how-to-create-a-strong-password-and-remember-it/) and include a combination of upper and lower case letters, symbols, and numbers.

While you will likely rely on your IT experts to secure your website, the truth is that it is ultimately up to you to ensure this is done. So even if you are not a digital mastermind, knowing all you can about web security can help you be a better business owner. Your customers will be safer, and a secure website is just one way to strengthen your business's online presence and keep up with today's -- and tomorrow's -- technology.

1665 views · 9 months ago

![Using AI for Weather Forecasting](https:/ /cdn.filestackcontent.com/NZd1Hj1pTvmhJqRqIYcw)

> Technology is constantly changing the way we interact, research, and react. One such way artificial intelligence is impacting our daily lives, and we may not even realize it is in weather forecasting.

The forecast we usually have been receiving in our phones and in older times primarily in newspapers, was based on data collected via satellites, radar system and weather balloons. In recent times there has been the addition of IoT based sensors as well. However, with the advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) finding its way in numerous areas, AI has taken a role in improving the accuracy of weather as well.

### The Dataset expansion

A significantly enormous set of data is available - from the weather satellites in space, to the private and government owned weather stations which are gaining real-time data. IBM for instance has more the 0.25 million weather stations that help IBM collect real-time data. Additionally, as we are in the age of Internet of Things (IOT), each small device to big device- cellphones, solar panels and vehicles everything has become or is yet to become yet another data source. Companies like GE have installed IOT street lights, which help in monitoring air quality and humidity. These are some of the few sources which help us in collecting the vast amount of data necessary for building on the AI technology, in future these sources and the amount of available data would grow exponentially.

### Google and Weather forecast

Using the AI technology Google is able to develop a weather forecast tool, it has been trained to predict rainfalls accurately as much as six hours before. The underlying technology on which this prediction is build upon is U-Net convolutional neural network which is originally used in biomedical research. It works by taking satellite images as input and uses AI technology to transform these images into high resolution images. The only off-set is this is not real-time prediction and the delay due to complex calculations results in using six-hour old data and hence can only predict six-hours before.

### IBM and its efforts in weather prediction

The quest for IBM to venture into weather forecasting began with IBM acquiring The Weather Company. IBM plans on using the large amount of weather data available coupled with IBM Watson and the cloud platform to enhance weather forecasting. In 2019 IBM developed Global High-Resolution Atmospheric Forecasting System (GRAF) in order to forecast weather conditions 12 hours prior to a greater degree of accuracy. The radius encompassed by the GRAF is also more narrowed down up to 3 kilometers as opposed to generally being 10-15 kilometers. Another of its marvel is that it gives accurate predictions down to each hour and not just daily.

### Artificial Intelligence and Panasonic

Panasonic is the company behind TAMDAR, the weather sensor installed on commercial airplanes. With this advantage of extensive amount of data from in-flight sensors as well as publicly available data Panasonic developed Global 4D Weather. Proving to their claim of being the most advanced global forecasting platform globally they were able to timely predict Hurricane Irma in its early days.

## Uses of Weather Forecasting

### Sales

Everyday life decisions are affected by weather, it makes us choose in the way we travel, things we eat and things we buy to wear. The rise in temperature may increase sales of chilled drinks, if the company is fully aware of the forecast it would be able to manage productions as per demand. AI can help brands in maximizing sales based on weather forecasts and in minimizing waste.

### Natural Disasters

The Panasonic Global 4D weather predicting Hurricane Irma is just another example where timely prediction can save millions of lives in face of situations like floods and Hurricanes. Companies like IBM combine weather forecasting data with utilities distribution network, which enables them to narrow down areas with likely outages. This enables utilities to place their workforce timely so the repair process catering to damage repairs post disasters is shortened. This in turn brings huge benefits to the overall economy.

### Agriculture

The weather and agriculture have the most obvious correlation, each process in farming from sowing to reaping all depends on the weather. As farmers cultivate on huge farming lands, accurate information about each part of the land can help farmers in improving their crops and yield by manifolds. Weather conditions can lead to almost 90 percent of crop losses, 25 percent of these losses can be avoided using accurate AI prediction models to forecast weather and in turn improve the yield.

### Transportation

Sea travel has always been eventful, timely prediction of storms by using machine learning techniques and hyper-local data allows companies to plan shipments accordingly and avoid severe weather conditions that usually result in delays. Tools like IBM’s Operations Dashboard for Ground Transportation equips in enhancing productivity based on weather predictions.

Another of the implementation of AI in transportation industry corelating to weather is fuel consumption. For instance, using weather prediction models to reduce airplane fuel consumption during its ascent.

To conclude Artificial Intelligence has a key role to play in weather forecasting, weather direct or indirectly impacts each sector in the economy. As the amount of information available to improve predictions increases exponentially it gives a chance to AI to improve accuracy even further. As we continue narrowing down weather conditions precise to time and location the benefits of such advancements across all industries are innumerable.

7767 views · 2 years ago

![Why Cloudways is the Perfect Managed Hosting for PHP Applications](https://images.ctfassets.net/vzl5fkwyme3u/3VLCUBagZPfSLyxyt1AvvP/89e3b904a450454545eb885e2e0e76b4/cloudways.jpg?w=1000)

#### The following is a sponsored blogpost by [Cloudways](https://www.cloudways.com/en/?id=431739)

Developing an application is not the sole thing you should bank on. You must strive to find the best hosting solution to deploy that application also. The application’s speed is dependent on the hosting provider, that is why I always advise you to go for the best hosting solution to get the ultimate app performance.

Now a days, it is a big challenge to choose any web hosting, as each hosting has its own pros and cons which you must know, before considering it finally for the deployment. I don’t recommend shared hosting for PHP/Laravel based applications, because you always get lot of server hassles like downtime, hacking, 500 errors, lousy support and other problems that are part and parcel of shared hosting.

For PHP applications, you must focus on more technical aspects like caching, configs, databases, etc. because these are essential performance points for any vanilla or framework-based PHP application. Additionally, if the app focuses on user engagement (for instance, ecommerce store), the hosting solution should be robust enough to handle spikes in traffic.

Here, I would like to introduce Cloudways [PHP server hosting](https://www.cloudways.com/en/php-cloud-hosting.php?id=431739) to you which provides easy, developer and designer friendly managed hosting platform. With Cloudways, you don't need to focus on PHP hosting, but must focus on building your application. You can easily launch cloud servers on five providers including DigitalOcean, Linode, Vultr, AWS and GCE.

### Cloudways ThunderStack

Being a developer, you must be familiar with the concept of stack - an arrangement of technologies that form the underlying hosting solution.

To provide a blazing fast speed and a glitch-free performance, Cloudways has built a PHP stack, known as ThunderStack. This stack consists of technologies that offer maximum uptime and page load speed to all PHP applications. Check out the following visual representation of ThunderStack and the constituent technologies:

![alt_text](https://images.ctfassets.net/vzl5fkwyme3u/5v08m0nwsFPv7niXjmRX0M/ca3aba8d814578baf676bd58c3933dc8/cloudways_image1.png?w=1000)

As you can see, ThunderStack comprises of a mix of static and dynamic caches with two web servers, Nginx and Apache. This combination ensures the ultimate experience for the users and visitors of your application.

### Frameworks and CMS

The strength and popularity of PHP lies in the variety of frameworks and CMS it offers to the developers. Realizing this diversity, Cloudways offers a hassle-free installation of major PHP frameworks including Symfony, Laravel, CakePHP, Zend, and Codeigniter. Similarly, popular CMS such as WordPress, Bolt, Craft, October, Couch, and Coaster CMS - you can install these with the 1-click option. The best part is that if you have a framework or CMS that is not on the list, you can easily install it through Composer.

### 1-Click PHP Server & Application Installation

Setting up a stack on an unmanaged VPS could take an entire day!

When you opt for Cloudways managed cloud hosting, the entire process of setting up the server, installation of core PHP files and then the setup of the required framework is over in a matter of minutes.

Just [sign up at Cloudways](https://www.cloudways.com/en/?id=431739), choose your desired cloud provider, and select the PHP stack application.

![alt_text](https://images.ctfassets.net/vzl5fkwyme3u/2Dp11Kg9FOkHkFbjUub7Tj/f0c4c125a8c683c51a548fdd287c8330/cloudways_image2.png?w=1000)

As you can see, your LAMP stack is ready for business in minutes.

Many PHP applications fail because essential services are either turned off or not set up properly. Cloudways offers a centralized location where you can view and set the status of all essential services such as:

* Apache

* Elasticsearch

* Memcached

* MySQL

* PHP-FPM

* Nginx

* New Relic

* Redis

* Varnish

![alt_text](https://images.ctfassets.net/vzl5fkwyme3u/1zvZI0b7zuPbBacp4ALAax/a5150babfbe2972c96beca3ac71395f2/cloudways_image3.png?w=1000)

Similarly, you can manage SMTP add-ons without any fuss.

### Staging Environment

With Cloudways, you can test your web applications for possible bugs and errors before taking it live.

Using the staging feature, developers can first deploy their web sites on test domains where they can analyze the applications performance and potential problems. This helps site administrators to fix those issues timely and view the application performance in real-time.

A default sub domain comes pre-installed with the newly launched application, making it easy for the administrators to test the applications on those testing subdomains. Overall, it's a great feature which helps developers know about the possible errors that may arise during the live deployment.

![alt_text](https://images.ctfassets.net/vzl5fkwyme3u/5gTrIsw9KjhocjtZMWVePB/a8274899ee55d7068329c551af362fdf/cloudways_image4.png?w=1000)

### Pre-Installed Composer & Git

PHP development requires working with external libraries and packages. Suppose you are working with Laravel and you need to install an external package. Since Composer has become the standard way of installing packages, it comes preinstalled on the Cloudways platform. Just launch the application and start using Composer in your project.

Similarly, if you are familiar with Git and maintain your project on GitHub or BitBucket, you don’t need to worry about Git installation. Git also comes pre-configured on Cloudways. You can start running commands right after application launch.

### Cloudways MySQL Manager

When you work with databases in PHP, you need a database manager. On the Cloudways platform, you will get a custom-built MySQL manager, in which you can perform all the tasks of a typical DB manager.

![alt_text](https://images.ctfassets.net/vzl5fkwyme3u/415qced8tKK8FWEsWGPhAm/ec1947d0b21ac8cd572613d0a1fa88dc/cloudways_image5.png?w=1000)

However, if you wish to install and use another database manager like PHPMyAdmin, you can install it by following this simple guide on installing [PHPMyadmin](https://www.cloudways.com/blog/installation-phpmyadmin/?id=431739).

### Server & Application Level SSH

If you use Linux, you typically use SSH for accessing the server(s) and individual applications. A third-party developer requires application and server level access as per the requirements of the client. Cloudways offers SSH access to fit the requirements of the client and users.

![alt_text](https://images.ctfassets.net/vzl5fkwyme3u/1IpSR4TrckMFJjYQ1m5upz/030f71f106b7db97ce16de10aba2c17b/cloudways_image6.png?w=1000)

### PHP-FPM, Varnish & Cron Settings

Cloudways provides custom UI panel to set and maintain PHP-FPM and Varnish settings. Although the default configuration is already in place, you can easily change all the settings to suit your own, particular development related requirements. In Varnish settings, you can define URL that you want to exclude from caching. You can also set permissions in this panel.

![alt_text](https://images.ctfassets.net/vzl5fkwyme3u/2W8XQvGa3CZAPBwUY4sqca/8a6b041c6dc850cc2715bb19eb17a464/cloudways_image7.png?w=1000)

Cron job is a very commonly used component of PHP application development process. On Cloudways platform, you can easily set up Cron jobs in just a few clicks. Just declare the PHP script URL and the time when the script will run.

![alt_text](https://images.ctfassets.net/vzl5fkwyme3u/32fN2IkC1X3HEC2Ly685nz/6fb9607bab9beaa81bff1b7fe4061edf/cloudways_image8.png?w=1000)

### Cloudways API & Personal Assistant Bot

Cloudways provides an internal API that offers all important aspects of the server and application management. Through Cloudways API, you can easily develop, integrate, automate, and manage your servers and web apps on Cloudways Platform using the RESTful API. Check out some of the [use cases developed](https://www.cloudways.com/blog/category/use-cases/api/?id=431739) using Cloudways API. You just need your API key and email for authentication of the HTTP calls on API Playground and custom applications.

![alt_text](https://images.ctfassets.net/vzl5fkwyme3u/5Uxx5XySaV2um2AnJjvbcg/0a4e997995d6644aa90c850a41db2720/cloudways_image9.png?w=1000)

Cloudways employs a smart assistant named CloudwaysBot to notify all users about server and application level issues. CloudwaysBot sends the notifications on pre-approved channels including email, Slack and popular task management tools such as Asana and Trello.

### Run Your APIs on PHP Stack

Do you have your own API which you want to run on the PHP stack? No problem, because you can do that, too with Cloudways! You can also use REST API like [Slim](https://www.cloudways.com/blog/simple-rest-api-with-slim-micro-framework/?id=431739&utm_source=phpjabber&utm_medium=referral), [Silex](https://www.cloudways.com/blog/create-rest-api-silex/?utm_source=phpjabber&utm_medium=referral&id=431739), [Lumen](https://www.cloudways.com/blog/creating-rest-api-with-lumen/?utm_source=phpjabber&utm_medium=referral&id=431739), and others. You can use APIs to speed up performance and require fast servers with lots of resources. So, if you think that your API response time is getting slower due to the large number of requests, you can easily scale your server(s) with a click to address the situation.

### Team Collaboration

When you work on a large number of applications with multiple developers, you need to assign them on any specific application. Cloudways provides an awesome feature of team collaboration through which you can assign developers to specific application and give access to them. You can use this tool to assign one developer to multiple applications. Through team feature, you can connect the team together and work on single platform. Access can be of different type; i.e. billing, support and console. You can either give the full access or a limited one by selecting the features in Team tab.

![alt_text](https://images.ctfassets.net/vzl5fkwyme3u/3Yn7GSeHrLvSbPf42RTR2n/269328c371e80f3ac87984cf46b6e9ac/cloudways_image10.png?w=1000)

### Final Words

Managed cloud hosting ensures that you are not bothered by any hosting or server related issues. For practical purposes, this means that developers can concentrate on writing awesome code without worrying about underlying infrastructure and hosting related issues. Do [sign up](https://www.cloudways.com/en/?id=431739) and check out Cloudways for the best and the most cost-effective cloud hosting solution for your next PHP project!

13441 views · 2 years ago

![PHP CHAT WITH SOCKETS](https://images.ctfassets.net/vzl5fkwyme3u/71dBtxsZPdBnAn8UgQTyRR/75ca0c2ab27af41ffc82b17d1be264d7/AdobeStock_265642631.jpeg?w=1000)

Hey Friends,

I am sharing a very interesting blog on how to create a chat system in php without using ajax. As we all know ajax based chat system in php is not a good solution

because it **increases the server load and redundant xhr calls** on our server.

Instead, I am going to use sockets for incoming messages from and send messages to another user. So lets try them out using the following steps:

### Step 1: Cross check in php.ini that sockets extension is enabled

```

;extension=sockets

/ /remove semicolon from very start of the extension like

extension=sockets

```

### Step 2: Create `server.php` file

This file will handle the incoming and outgoing messages on sockets, Add following variables in top of the file:

```php

$host = 'localhost'; / /host

$port = '9000'; / /port

$null = NULL; / /null var

```

### Step 3: After it add helper methods

The following code for handshake with new incoming connections and encrypt and decrypt messages incoming and outgoing over sockets:

```php

function send_message($msg)

{

global $clients;

foreach($clients as $changed_socket)

{

@socket_write($changed_socket,$msg,strlen($msg));

}

return true;

}

/ /Unmask incoming framed message

function unmask($text) {

$length = ord($text[1]) & 127;

if($length == 126) {

$masks = substr($text, 4, 4);

$data = substr($text, 8);

}

elseif($length == 127) {

$masks = substr($text, 10, 4);

$data = substr($text, 14);

}

else {

$masks = substr($text, 2, 4);

$data = substr($text, 6);

}

$text = "";

for ($i = 0; $i < strlen($data); ++$i) {

$text .= $data[$i] ^ $masks[$i%4];

}

return $text;

}

/ /Encode message for transfer to client.

function mask($text)

{

$b1 = 0x80 | (0x1 & 0x0f);

$length = strlen($text);

if($length <= 125)

$header = pack('CC', $b1, $length);

elseif($length > 125 && $length < 65536)

$header = pack('CCn', $b1, 126, $length);

elseif($length >= 65536)

$header = pack('CCNN', $b1, 127, $length);

return $header.$text;

}

/ /handshake new client.

function perform_handshaking($receved_header,$client_conn, $host, $port)

{

$headers = array();

$lines = preg_split("/

/", $receved_header);

foreach($lines as $line)

{

$line = chop($line);

if(preg_match('/\A(\S+): (.*)\z/', $line, $matches))

{

$headers[$matches[1]] = $matches[2];

}

}

$secKey = $headers['Sec-WebSocket-Key'];

$secAccept = base64_encode(pack('H*', sha1($secKey . '258EAFA5-E914-47DA-95CA-C5AB0DC85B11')));

/ /hand shaking header

$upgrade = "HTTP/1.1 101 Web Socket Protocol Handshake

" .

"Upgrade: websocket

" .

"Connection: Upgrade

" .

"WebSocket-Origin: $host

" .

"WebSocket-Location: ws:/ /$host:$port/php-ws/chat-daemon.php

".

"Sec-WebSocket-Accept:$secAccept

";

socket_write($client_conn,$upgrade,strlen($upgrade));

}

```

### Step 4: Now add following code to create bind and listen tcp/ip sockets:

```php

/ /Create TCP/IP stream socket

$socket = socket_create(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, SOL_TCP);

/ /reuseable port

socket_set_option($socket, SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, 1);

/ /bind socket to specified host

socket_bind($socket, 0, $port);

/ /listen to port

socket_listen($socket);

/ /create & add listning socket to the list

$clients = array($socket);

```

Ok now a endless loop that will use for handeling incominga nd send messages:

```php

/ /start endless loop, so that our script doesn't stop

while (true) {

/ /manage multiple connections

$changed = $clients;

/ /returns the socket resources in $changed array

socket_select($changed, $null, $null, 0, 10);

/ /check for new socket

if (in_array($socket, $changed)) {

$socket_new = socket_accept($socket); / /accpet new socket

$clients[] = $socket_new; / /add socket to client array

$header = socket_read($socket_new, 1024); / /read data sent by the socket

perform_handshaking($header, $socket_new, $host, $port); / /perform websocket handshake

socket_getpeername($socket_new, $ip); / /get ip address of connected socket

$response = mask(json_encode(array('type'=>'system', 'message'=>$ip.' connected'))); / /prepare json data

send_message($response); / /notify all users about new connection

/ /make room for new socket

$found_socket = array_search($socket, $changed);

unset($changed[$found_socket]);

}

/ /loop through all connected sockets

foreach ($changed as $changed_socket) {

/ /check for any incomming data

while(socket_recv($changed_socket, $buf, 1024, 0) >= 1)

{

$received_text = unmask($buf); / /unmask data

$tst_msg = json_decode($received_text, true); / /json decode

$user_name = $tst_msg['name']; / /sender name

$user_message = $tst_msg['message']; / /message text

$user_color = $tst_msg['color']; / /color

/ /prepare data to be sent to client

$response_text = mask(json_encode(array('type'=>'usermsg', 'name'=>$user_name, 'message'=>$user_message, 'color'=>$user_color)));

send_message($response_text); / /send data

break 2; / /exist this loop

}

$buf = @socket_read($changed_socket, 1024, PHP_NORMAL_READ);

if ($buf === false) { / / check disconnected client

/ / remove client for $clients array

$found_socket = array_search($changed_socket, $clients);

socket_getpeername($changed_socket, $ip);

unset($clients[$found_socket]);

/ /notify all users about disconnected connection

$response = mask(json_encode(array('type'=>'system', 'message'=>$ip.' disconnected')));

send_message($response);

}

}

}

/ / close the listening socket

socket_close($socket);

```

So you are ready with server side socket program, Now its time to move on front side where we will implement w3c provided client side Web Socket Apis,

### Step 5: create a file named index.php for frontend usage with following initial code

```php

$host = 'localhost'; / /host

$port = '9000'; / /port

$subfolder = "php_ws/"; / /project subfolder name, you may change it with project directory or make it blank

/ /#add trail slash if there is any subfolder defined otherrwise make it blank

$colors = array('#007AFF','#FF7000','#FF7000','#15E25F','#CFC700','#CFC700','#CF1100','#CF00BE','#F00');

$color_pick = array_rand($colors);

<!DOCTYPE html>

<html>

<head>

<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">

</head>

<body>

<div class="chat-wrapper">

<div id="message-box"></div>

<div class="user-panel">

<input type="text" name="name" id="name" placeholder="Your Name" maxlength="15" />

<input type="text" name="message" id="message" placeholder="Type your message here..." maxlength="100" />

<button id="send-message">Send</button>

</div>

</div>

</body>

</html>

```

Now add some basic styling in the head section using following code:

```html

<style type="text/css">

.chat-wrapper {

font: bold 11px/normal 'lucida grande', tahoma, verdana, arial, sans-serif;

background: #00a6bb;

padding: 20px;

margin: 20px auto;

box-shadow: 2px 2px 2px 0px #00000017;

max-width:700px;

min-width:500px;

}

#message-box {

width: 97%;

display: inline-block;

height: 300px;

background: #fff;

box-shadow: inset 0px 0px 2px #00000017;

overflow: auto;

padding: 10px;

}

.user-panel{

margin-top: 10px;

}

input[type=text]{

border: none;

padding: 5px 5px;

box-shadow: 2px 2px 2px #0000001c;

}

input[type=text]#name{

width:20%;

}

input[type=text]#message{

width:60%;

}

button#send-message {

border: none;

padding: 5px 15px;

background: #11e0fb;

box-shadow: 2px 2px 2px #0000001c;

}

</style>

```

Ok Style is all set now need to add a jquery script and create web socket object and handle all events on it as following code need to add before closing of bosy tag:

```html

<script src="https:/ /ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.3.1/jquery.min.js"></script>

<script language="javascript" type="text/javascript">

/ /create a new WebSocket object.

var msgBox = $('#message-box');

var wsUri = "ws:/ /".$host.":".$port."/php-ws/server.php";

websocket = new WebSocket(wsUri);

websocket.onopen = function(ev) { / / connection is open

msgBox.append('<div class="system_msg" style="color:#bbbbbb">Welcome to my "Chat box"!</div>'); / /notify user

}

/ / Message received from server

websocket.onmessage = function(ev) {

var response = JSON.parse(ev.data); / /PHP sends Json data

var res_type = response.type; / /message type

var user_message = response.message; / /message text

var user_name = response.name; / /user name

var user_color = response.color; / /color

switch(res_type){

case 'usermsg':

msgBox.append('<div><span class="user_name" style="color:' + user_color + '">' + user_name + '</span> : <span class="user_message">' + user_message + '</span></div>');

break;

case 'system':

msgBox.append('<div style="color:#bbbbbb">' + user_message + '</div>');

break;

}

msgBox[0].scrollTop = msgBox[0].scrollHeight; / /scroll message

};

websocket.onerror = function(ev){ msgBox.append('<div class="system_error">Error Occurred - ' + ev.data + '</div>'); };

websocket.onclose = function(ev){ msgBox.append('<div class="system_msg">Connection Closed</div>'); };

/ /Message send button

$('#send-message').click(function(){

send_message();

});

/ /User hits enter key

$( "#message" ).on( "keydown", function( event ) {

if(event.which==13){

send_message();

}

});

/ /Send message

function send_message(){

var message_input = $('#message'); / /user message text

var name_input = $('#name'); / /user name

if(message_input.val() == ""){ / /empty name?

alert("Enter your Name please!");

return;

}

if(message_input.val() == ""){ / /emtpy message?

alert("Enter Some message Please!");

return;

}

/ /prepare json data

var msg = {

message: message_input.val(),

name: name_input.val(),

color : '<?php echo $colors[$color_pick]; ?>'

};

/ /convert and send data to server

websocket.send(JSON.stringify(msg));

message_input.val(''); / /reset message input

}

</script>

```

Ok All set, Now need to run the server.php file using following php-cli utility,make sure you have php cli utility installed in your system:


```

php -q c:\xampp\htdocs\php-ws\server.php

```

Now you may access the front index.php file via the browser url like following and see a chatbox and connection status, you may use the same url or different browser to check the chat system is working or not.

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