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7939 views · 3 months ago


In modern software architecture, developers are constantly exploring new paradigms to enhance the performance, scalability, and maintainability of their applications. One such architectural pattern gaining popularity is Command Query Responsibility Segregation (CQRS). CQRS separates the responsibility of handling read and write operations, offering numerous benefits in complex systems. In this article, we'll delve into CQRS and explore its implementation in PHP.

What is CQRS?


CQRS, coined by Greg Young, is an architectural pattern that segregates the responsibility for handling read and write operations in a system. In traditional CRUD-based architectures, the same model is often used for both reading and writing data. However, CQRS advocates for a clear distinction between commands (write operations that modify state) and queries (read operations that retrieve data).

Key Concepts of CQRS:
   

. Command: Commands represent actions that modify the state of the system. They encapsulate the intent to perform an operation, such as creating, updating, or deleting data.
   
. Query: Queries retrieve data from the system without modifying its state. They are read-only operations used to fetch information for presentation or analysis.
   
. Command Handler: Responsible for processing commands by executing the necessary business logic and updating the system's state accordingly.
   
. Query Handler: Handles queries by retrieving data from the appropriate data source and returning the results to the caller.
   
. Separate Models: CQRS often involves maintaining separate models for commands and queries. This allows each model to be optimized for its specific use case, leading to improved performance and scalability.

Implementing CQRS in PHP:


Implementing CQRS in PHP involves structuring your application to separate command and query responsibilities effectively. Here's a high-level overview of how to implement CQRS in PHP:

1. Define Commands and Queries:


Start by defining the commands and queries your application will support. Commands should encapsulate actions that modify state, while queries should retrieve data.

class CreateProductCommand {
public $name;
public $price;
}

class GetProductQuery {
public $productId;
}


2. Create Command and Query Handlers:


Next, implement handlers for processing commands and queries. Command handlers execute the necessary business logic to fulfill the command, while query handlers retrieve data based on the query criteria.

class CreateProductCommandHandler {
public function handle(CreateProductCommand $command) {
}
}

class GetProductQueryHandler {
public function handle(GetProductQuery $query) {
}
}


3. Use Separate Models:


Maintain separate models for commands and queries to optimize each for its specific purpose. This separation allows you to design models tailored to the needs of write and read operations.

class Product {
public $name;
public $price;
}

class ProductView {
public $name;
public $price;
}


4. Wiring Everything Together:


Finally, wire up your command and query handlers to the appropriate endpoints or controllers in your application. Dispatch commands to their respective handlers and invoke query handlers to retrieve data.

$command = new CreateProductCommand();
$command->name = "Example Product";
$command->price = 99.99;

$handler = new CreateProductCommandHandler();
$handler->handle($command);

$query = new GetProductQuery();
$query->productId = 123;

$handler = new GetProductQueryHandler();
$product = $handler->handle($query);


Benefits of CQRS in PHP:


-Improved Scalability: Separating read and write operations allows you to scale each independently based on demand.

-Enhanced Performance: Optimizing models and handlers for specific tasks can lead to improved performance and responsiveness.

-Simplified Maintenance: Clear separation of concerns makes the codebase easier to understand, maintain, and extend over time.

-Flexibility: CQRS enables flexibility in choosing the most suitable data storage and retrieval mechanisms for different use cases.

Conclusion:


CQRS is a powerful architectural pattern that offers numerous advantages for building complex and scalable PHP applications. By segregating command and query responsibilities, developers can achieve better performance, scalability, and maintainability in their systems. While implementing CQRS in PHP requires careful planning and design, the benefits it provides make it a compelling choice for projects requiring high performance and flexibility.
3935 views · 3 months ago


In today's digital age, where data breaches and cyber attacks are increasingly prevalent, safeguarding sensitive information is paramount. Cryptography, the art of secure communication, plays a crucial role in ensuring data confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity. Implementing cryptography in PHP, one of the most widely used server-side scripting languages, offers a robust means to protect your data. In this guide, we'll explore how to utilize cryptography effectively in PHP to enhance the security of your applications.

Understanding Cryptography Basics


Before diving into PHP implementations, it's essential to grasp the fundamental concepts of cryptography. At its core, cryptography involves techniques for encrypting plaintext data into ciphertext to conceal its meaning from unauthorized parties. Key aspects of cryptography include:
   
. Encryption: The process of converting plaintext data into ciphertext using an algorithm and a secret key. This ciphertext can only be decrypted back to its original form using the appropriate decryption key.
   
. Decryption: The reverse process of encryption, where ciphertext is transformed back into plaintext using the decryption algorithm and the correct key.
   
. Symmetric Encryption: A type of encryption where the same key is used for both encryption and decryption. Examples include AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) and DES (Data Encryption Standard).
   
. Asymmetric Encryption: Also known as public-key cryptography, it involves a pair of keys: a public key for encryption and a private key for decryption. RSA and ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography) are common asymmetric encryption algorithms.

Implementing Cryptography in PHP


PHP provides robust cryptographic functions through its OpenSSL and Mcrypt extensions, allowing developers to implement various encryption techniques easily. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to perform common cryptographic operations in PHP:

1. Symmetric Encryption


<?php
$encryptionKey = openssl_random_pseudo_bytes(32);

$plaintext = "Sensitive data to encrypt";
$ciphertext = openssl_encrypt($plaintext, 'aes-256-cbc', $encryptionKey, 0, $iv);

$decryptedText = openssl_decrypt($ciphertext, 'aes-256-cbc', $encryptionKey, 0, $iv);

echo $decryptedText;
?>


2. Asymmetric Encryption


<?php
$config = array(
"digest_alg" => "sha512",
"private_key_bits" => 4096,
"private_key_type" => OPENSSL_KEYTYPE_RSA,
);
$keyPair = openssl_pkey_new($config);

openssl_pkey_export($keyPair, $privateKey);
$publicKey = openssl_pkey_get_details($keyPair)["key"];

$plaintext = "Confidential message";
openssl_public_encrypt($plaintext, $encrypted, $publicKey);

openssl_private_decrypt($encrypted, $decrypted, $privateKey);

echo $decrypted;
?>


Best Practices for Cryptography in PHP


While implementing cryptography in PHP, it's essential to adhere to best practices to ensure maximum security:
   
. Use Strong Algorithms: Always use widely recognized cryptographic algorithms like AES for symmetric encryption and RSA for asymmetric encryption.
   
. Key Management: Safeguard encryption keys carefully. Utilize secure key management practices, such as storing keys in secure vaults and rotating them regularly.
   
. Data Integrity: Implement mechanisms to verify data integrity, such as HMAC (Hash-based Message Authentication Code), to detect tampering attempts.
   
. Secure Communication: When transmitting encrypted data over networks, use secure protocols like HTTPS to prevent eavesdropping and man-in-the-middle attacks.
   
. Stay Updated: Keep PHP and cryptographic libraries up to date to patch any security vulnerabilities and ensure compatibility with the latest cryptographic standards.

By following these guidelines and leveraging the cryptographic capabilities of PHP, developers can strengthen the security posture of their applications and protect sensitive data from unauthorized access. Remember, effective cryptography is not just about encryption but also encompasses key management, integrity verification, and secure communication practices. With diligence and proper implementation, PHP can be a powerful tool for building secure and resilient systems in today's digital landscape.
256 views · 3 months ago


Are you looking to dive into the world of relational databases but feeling overwhelmed by the options available? MariaDB might just be the perfect starting point for you. In this beginner's guide, we'll introduce you to MariaDB, an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS) that's renowned for its ease of use, scalability, and robust performance. Whether you're a budding developer, a small business owner, or just curious about databases, this guide will walk you through the basics of MariaDB and get you started on your database journey.

What is MariaDB?


MariaDB is a community-developed, open-source RDBMS that was forked from MySQL in 2009. It's designed to be a drop-in replacement for MySQL, meaning that most MySQL features and commands work seamlessly with MariaDB. This makes it an attractive option for those already familiar with MySQL or looking to migrate from it.

Features of MariaDB:
   

. Open-Source: MariaDB is distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL), making it freely available for anyone to use, modify, and distribute.
   
. High Performance: MariaDB is optimized for high performance, thanks to its efficient storage engines, query optimizer, and multi-threaded architecture.
   
. Scalability: Whether you're running a small-scale application or managing large-scale deployments, MariaDB can scale to meet your needs.
   
. Security: MariaDB takes security seriously, offering features such as encryption, role-based access control, and secure connections to ensure your data remains safe.
   
. Compatibility: As mentioned earlier, MariaDB strives to maintain compatibility with MySQL, which means you can easily migrate existing MySQL databases to MariaDB with minimal hassle.

Getting Started:


Installation:


Getting started with MariaDB is straightforward. You can install it on various operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and macOS. Here's a basic overview of the installation process:

-Linux: Most Linux distributions offer MariaDB in their official repositories. You can install it using your package manager. For example, on Ubuntu, you can run sudo apt-get install mariadb-server.

-Windows/macOS: MariaDB provides installers for Windows and macOS on their official website. Simply download the installer and follow the on-screen instructions to complete the installation.

Configuration:


Once MariaDB is installed, you'll need to perform some initial configuration steps, such as setting up a root password and securing the installation. This typically involves running a configuration script or accessing the MariaDB command-line interface (CLI).

Creating Databases and Tables:


With MariaDB installed and configured, you can start creating databases and tables to store your data. You can do this using SQL commands or a graphical interface such as phpMyAdmin.

Here's a simple example of creating a database and a table:

CREATE DATABASE my_database;
USE my_database;

CREATE TABLE users (
id INT AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
username VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL,
email VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL
);


This creates a database named my_database and a table named users with columns for id, username, and email.

Performing Basic Queries:


Once you have your database and tables set up, you can start querying your data using SQL. Here are some basic examples of SQL queries:

-Inserting Data:
INSERT INTO users (username, email) VALUES ('john_doe', '[email protected]');


-Selecting Data:
SELECT * FROM users;


-Updating Data:
UPDATE users SET email = '[email protected]' WHERE username = 'john_doe';


-Deleting Data:
DELETE FROM users WHERE username = 'john_doe';


Conclusion:


MariaDB is an excellent choice for beginners and experienced developers alike who are looking for a powerful, open-source relational database solution. In this guide, we've covered the basics of MariaDB, from installation to performing basic database operations. As you continue to explore MariaDB, you'll discover a wealth of features and capabilities that can help you build robust and scalable applications. So why wait? Dive into MariaDB today and unlock the full potential of relational databases.
4439 views · 4 months ago


For any development project to be successful, it’s important to choose the right technology and programming language. Most of the time, developers get confused about which programming language to choose.

Nowadays, PHP and Python have gained popularity among the programming languages for web development projects. However, choosing one between PHP vs Python is a difficult task. Recently, this has become a good topic for discussion.

Here, in this blog, we will compare the two popular programming languages: PHP vs Python. Let’s see which one turns out to be the best choice for web development.


What is Python?

Python is an open-source programming language developed in the year 1991 by Guido Van Rossum. It is one of the most commonly used languages due to its high level and easy-to-understand syntax.

According to the survey by Stack Overflow, Python is one of the most preferred programming languages. These Python app examples highlight its robustness and suitability for building scalable and innovative solutions across different platforms. Most of the companies and developers around the world are using Python web development.

What is PHP?

PHP or Hypertext Pre-processor, is an open-source server scripting language that is used for creating interactive and engaging web pages. This programming language comes with many features, libraries, plugins, and add-ons that increase community support and functionalities.

PHP language was developed by Rasmus Lerdorf in the year 1995. Earlier, PHP was named as Personal Home Page, which was later changed to Hypertext Pre-processor. An advantage of using PHP language is it supports all web browsers.

PHP is a practical, flexible, and fast programming language that can handle dynamic content on HTML sites, session tracking, and databases.

Features: PHP vs Python

PHP

* Open-source language, anyone can download and use it for free.
* PHP is easy to use and code than other programming languages.
* It is more efficient than other scripting languages like ASP and JSP.
* Offers access to log in by creating a summary of the recent user accesses.
* Provides database integration and supports distinct databases such as MySQL and Oracle.
* It has predefined error-reporting constants that generate warning or error messages.

Python

* Python is an easy-to-learn programming language.
* Provides an ideal structure and support for large applications.
* It can operate on different hardware platforms utilizing the same user interface.
* Python can be integrated with C, C++, and Java programming code.
* It’s easy to incorporate low-level modules in Python interpreter.
* Python offers high-level dynamic types of data and support for dynamic type checking.
* Its features support automatic garbage collection.
* It supports an interactive mode of testing and debugging.


Pros and Cons: PHP vs Python

Here, we will compare the pros and cons of PHP vs python for web development.

Pros of PHP

* Has a large ecosystem.
* Flexible and platform-independent.
* Several open-source PHP frameworks are available to use for free.
* Offers many pluggable frameworks, Open-source and object-oriented.
* Supports different database interfaces such as No SQL, PostgreSQL, and so on.
* It is supported by many operating systems and works cross-platform.
* Encourages top-notch debugging.
* Provides in-built SQL support.
* Offers support for database collection modules.
* It supports all operating systems like Windows, Linux, and UNIX.

Cons of PHP

* Delayed and wired performance.
* Not apt for content-based applications.
* Utilizes weak typing that can lead to false knowledge and data to users.
* Its core behavior can’t be changed.
* There’s no IOT alliance.
* Fewer security protocols and features.

Pros of Python

* Easy to learn and maintain.
* An open-source and uniformly unfolding language.
* Enables cross-platform code reusability.
* Object-oriented and versatile language to deploy.
* Offers WORA functionality.
* Helps in developing GUI apps.
* Has automatic garbage collection.
* It can be integrated easily with other languages, such as Java or C++.
* Provides libraries like Tenseorflow for math-intensive tasks.

Cons of Python

* Creates delays in web app testing.
* It utilizes an enormous amount of memory to help developers in easy development.
* Operates slower than other web development languages.
* Not of much use in mobile computing browsers and mobile app development.
* It has dynamic typing, which makes error detection more difficult.
* It’s too large for a simple and small app or website.
* Run time errors occurs due to duck typing.

When Should You Select PHP?

PHP is a commonly used server-side scripting language among developers. The best use cases in which you should select PHP:
* For developing blogs, websites, and web applications.
* Work effectively on the server side.
* Less investment.

When Should You Select Python?

* Python programming language has gained popularity in recent times. Below we have given some of the best cases in which you should choose Python.
* For operating in the areas of robotics and data science.
* When you want accurate and extensive data analytics.
* Developing websites using the Django framework.

Why opt for PHP?

Here, we will give you some reasons why you should opt for the PHP programming language.
* Open-source language, easy to download and use.
* Easy to learn and operates effectively on the server side.
* This scripting language can run on distinct platforms such as Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and UNIX.
* It’s compatible with every server, like IIS, Apaches, and so on.
* Supports a broad range of databases.

Why opt for Python?

As you know, there are many advantages and disadvantages of using Python. Here, we will tell you why you should choose Python for web development.
* Python language is easy to use and maintain.
* Python syntax is quick to understand and debug as well. Therefore, its source code is easier to maintain.
* It has a garbage collection feature and memory addresses accordingly.
* It comes with many pre-built libraries.
* Python supports GUI apps such as Django, Tkinter, WXPython, etc.
* It’s a versatile and portable language. You can run Python on different types of operating systems or platforms.
* Python comes with a database-friendly interface that can store a colossal amount of data for commercial DBMS systems.
* It has an interactive shell that helps in unit testing before deploying a product.

Comparison: PHP vs Python

Above, we have given the features and pros & cons of PHP vs Python. In this section, we will give you a comparison between PHP vs Python in accordance with different parameters.

Parameters
Python
PHP
Release
    .
    .
Learning curve
Easier
Steep
Language type
Specialized for web development
General purpose programming language
Syntax
Clear & concise
Complex
Security
High
Medium
Readability
High
Low
Database connectivity
Faster
Slower
Debugging
Fast
Slower
Performance
Lesser support
Faster
Supported Frameworks
Flask, Django, Web2Py
Laravel, Zend, Codelgniter
GitHub Stars
    . 9k
    . 5k
TIOBE Rating
    . st position
    . th position
Forks
    . 5 k
    . 9k
Major Users
Instagram, YouTube, Quora, Reddit
Facebook, Yahoo, Flickr, Tumblr


This comprehensive comparison between PHP vs Python can help you to choose the right language for web development. Now, we will compare some other elements that would give you a clear picture of both PHP vs Python.

1. Ease of Learning

Python is an easier language to learn compared to PHP. If you are a beginner, then Python is a good choice as you can learn it quickly. Python programs are shorter as well as easy to write in comparison to other languages.

PHP programming language is made for creating sophisticated web apps. It’s not a general-purpose language, and it takes time to learn it.

2. Ease of Use

Python is an open-source programming language that is versatile and portable. Python’s syntax is simple, and coding is easy to learn compared to PHP. But PHP is not just an ordinary programming language it’s used for creating dynamic web pages with HTML. This makes PHP more difficult to use than Python.

3. Community Support

Both PHP and Python provide good community support. PHP has been in the market for a long time and has a large community of developers. Therefore, you can immediately get support if you opt for PHP.

However, there are even many Python developers who constantly develop python apps. So, the community support in Python is also good. Consequently, we can’t say whether PHP or Python is better at providing community support.

4. Flexibility

Nowadays, web apps backed by Machine Learning are in high demand. Also, ML is a significant part of Python. Python provides many machine-learning libraries, such as Tensorflow, Theano, Pandas, and Scikit-learn. Additionally, these libraries are rapid, unique, & robust and work effectively with a web framework.

Nonetheless, Python programming language can be used in many other fields apart from web development. But when it comes to PHP, it’s best for web development. Therefore, we can say Python is a better choice here.

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5. Speed to Market

Python provides a comprehensive set of modules and third-party libraries to help developers finish the project faster. One of the popular web frameworks written in Python is Django. It utilizes the MVC pattern to allow developers to create apps fast using a significant division of concerns and reusability.

PHP also has a vast set of tools, frameworks, and libraries. Laravel is a popular PHP framework that allows the MVC pattern. Additionally, it comes with many helpful functionalities for web development, like routing, templating, authentication, and so on.

6. Web Frameworks

You get robust and well-designed web development frameworks both in PHP and Python. Most of the big businesses utilize web frameworks that PHP provides. For example, Laravel and Symfony are mature web frameworks, and a huge community supports them. So, we can say PHP makes web development easy.

Python also has many exceptional frameworks that are highly scalable, easy to use, fast and secure. It’s two most popular web frameworks are Flask and Django. If you want a shorter development period, then you can choose Django over PHP-based frameworks.

7. Library Management

Python uses Pip to handle and deal with packages. Pip ensures that Python app development is easy, rapid, and meets development needs. Python has powerful library management compared to PHP. It has a wide range of packages and tools that assist and make web app development easier. So, in terms of library management, Python clearly wins it.

8. Security

When it comes to security, most businesses prefer using Python. For instance, Django offers many pre-built security features that aid in safeguarding the apps from distinct security breaches & threats.

Apart from that, many government organizations rely on Python as their secret hacking tool. Most of the security problems are addressed by its large community support. However, PHP is less strong than Python in aspects of security.

9. Environment Management

In terms of handling environments, Python is the best programming language. It has a Virtualenv system that aids in installing different versions of the language and switching between them immediately.
PHP has no comparison with Python when it comes to handling environments. There’s an analog of PHP, VirtPHP, but it’s archived and not maintained. Therefore, most of the developers opt for Python.

10. Debugging

Python has an in-built debugger called Python Debugger or PDB. It utilizes many debugging strategies. PDB enables dynamic typing and lets developers work effortlessly without stating things at the start of a program.
PHP also comes with an XDebug package for handling bugs and error-checking the codes. But PHP development is quite slow in identifying and removing bugs. Therefore, it often experiences security issues.


The Bottom Line PHP vs Python: Which One You Choose for Web Development?


From the blog, you must have inferred that both PHP and Python are good for web development. However, there are many aspects in which Python wins over PHP. But this doesn’t mean that you only have to opt for Python. The selection of programming language majorly depends on the complexity and needs of the project.

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PHP vs Python: FAQs

1. Why choose Python over PHP?
Python is chosen over PHP for web app development due to many reasons, such as ease to use, simple syntax, flexibility, security, high performance, etc.
2. Which programming language is secure: PHP vs Python?
Python is a preferred programming language when it comes to security as it has many security features compared to PHP.
3. Why is Python used mostly?
Python is a general-purpose programming language and is utilized in web development, mobile app development, AI, ML, game development, big data, and so on.
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281 views · 6 months ago


Today’s digital transformation has significantly empowered every company to produce accurate information at all touch points. Whether it’s a large-scale enterprise or a small private venture, every organization irrespective of all sizes needs proper web app development services to build a sophisticated database for storing and managing its data. Examples of web applications include customer relationship management (CRM) systems, project management tools, and e-commerce platforms. These custom software developers play a crucial role in tailoring web applications to meet specific business needs, ensuring seamless integration and optimal functionality.

A database is a set of a vast range of structured & unstructured data stored in a system and adequately managed through DBMS or Database Management System. The data stored in the database is highly sensitive, hence companies need to be careful while accessing any data or information.

When considering the development of web applications, partnering with a reputable web development firm is essential to ensure the seamless integration and efficient management of databases. A skilled web development firm possesses the expertise to optimize database systems, enhancing data organization, security, and retrieval processes for an enhanced user experience. In this article, we will delve into the top database solutions for web applications in 2024 and explore the advantages they bring to the forefront of modern software development.

Types of Databases For Web Applications

Depending on your business model, industry domain, and other factors, your business application system will have certain requirements. Different databases types are used for different enterprise requirements. However, the database is technically divided into two types: SQL & NoSQL.

SQL or Structured Query Language is a relational database that comes with a relational structure. This is used for managing structured data only. On the other hand, the NoSQL database doesn’t have any relational structure & they are used to store unstructured data types. For your convenience, we have shared a complete comparison of both databases below.

SQL Databases
NoSQL Databases
Mix of proprietary & open-source
Open source database
Comes with rational structure
No rational structure
Ideal for managing structured data
Best for storing unstructured & semi-structured data
Vertically scalable
Horizontally scalable
Examples: MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, etc
Examples: MongoDB, Cassandra, Firebase, etc

Enterprises have deeply relied on SQL to manage all their databases in web apps, but as cloud, microservices & distributed applications become popular, there are NoSQL options also available. Before you choose the right database, you must consider a number of factors such as size, structure & scalability requirements. Apart from that, you need to consider some of the following questions also:
* What type of data structure do you need?
* What is the amount of data you want to store?
* What is your total budget?
* Does it allow for support contracts & software licenses?
* What is the requirement for your data security?
* What third-party tools do you want to add to your database?

Best Databases For Web Applications In 2024

Finding out the right database option for a web app development may impact the scalability and success of any project. With too many options available, it’s quite challenging to select which one is the best for you. 2024’s widely-popular databases include:

1. MySQL:

MySQL is one of the best open-source relational databases developed by Oracle Corporation in 1995. According to the Stack Overflow developer survey, this database was used by 46.8% as of 2022. The robustness, maturity, and stability of this database make it perfect for web applications. Moreover, MySQL database uses a structured language & written in C & C++.
Latest version: MySQL 8.0.33

Key features of MySQL database include:
* Easy to deploy & manage
* It supports Consistency, Atomicity, Isolation & Durability
* It’s an RDBMS or Relational Database Management System
* Provides fast-loading utilities with several memory caches to maintain servers
* Offers top-notch results without compromising any functionality
* Contains solid Data Security layers to offer complete security solutions

2. PostgreSQL:

Launched in 1996, PostgreSQL is also a very popular database used as a data warehouse or primary data store for web, analytics, geospatial and mobile applications. This is also an open-source SQL-based RDBMS (relational database management system) that supports C, C++, C#, Ruby, Java, Python, and other programming languages. This agile database is compatible with different OSs such as Windows, Linux, Unix, MacOSX, etc.
Latest version: PostgreSQL 15.3

Key features of the PostgreSQL database include
* Houses different constraints such as primary keys, foreign keys, exclusion constraints, explicit locks, advisory locks, etc
* Supports different SQL features like SQL Sub-selects, Multi-Version Concurrency Control,
* Streaming Replication, complex queries, etc.
* Compatible with different data types like Structured, Customizations, Primitives, Geometry & Documents.
* Supports MVCC or multi-version concurrency control

3. Microsoft SQL Server:

Launched in 1989, Microsoft SQL Server is a powerful RDBMS used for transaction processing, analytics applications, and business intelligence in IT environments. It comes with built-in intelligence & enables businesses to boost their performance, security, and availability seamlessly. MS SQL Server comes in different editions with authentication & security features.
Latest version: Microsoft SQL Server 2022

Key features of the Microsoft SQL Server database include:
* Available on both Linux & Windows platforms
* Supports semi-structured, structured, and spatial data
* It has a custom-built graphical integration
* Helps users build different designs and tables without syntax
* Comes with several features for protection, monitoring, and data classification
* Gives alerts on security gaps, misconfigurations & suspicious activities

4. MongoDB:

MongoDB is a document-oriented open-source NoSQL database used for high-volume data storage. Written in JavaScript, C++, and Python, this is a very flexible and scalable database platform that removes relational DB approaches. MongoDB offers a high level of flexibility through load balancing and horizontal scaling capacities. This is a perfect option for web apps that need high performance.
Latest version: MongoDB 6.0.5

Key features of the MongoDB database include:
* Effectively supports ad hoc queries
* Highly scalable & flexible database
* Offers schema-less database
* Appropriate indexing for query executions
* Replication for data availability & stability

5. Oracle:

Oracle is a very popular RDBMS that is known for its high-performance and cost-optimization solutions. This is a commercial relational database written in C, C++ & Java. Oracle comes with a relational database architecture that offers an easy, scalable, performant solution for accessing, defining, and managing data.
Latest version: Oracle 21c

Key features of the Oracle database include:
* Executes fast backup & recovery
* Provides multiple database support
* Offers superior scalability
* Offers better user controls and identity management
* Utilizes a single database for every data type

6. Redis:

Redis stands for Remote Dictionary Server and is a widely-used open-source database used for web applications and cache management. Redis can also be used with different streaming solutions like Amazon Kinesis & Apache Kafka to analyze & process real-time data.

This database also supports different data structures like lists, streams, bitmaps, strings, maps, and so on. Because of its high performance, Redis is vastly used in many sectors such as IoT, Gaming, Financial Services, etc.
Latest version: Redis 7.0.11

Key features of the Redis database include:
* Provides premium speed with improved caching & in-memory capabilities.
* Supports a variety of data structures (strings, hashes, lists, bitmaps, HyperLogLogs, etc)
* Compatible with different languages (Java, PHP, Python, C, C#, C++, etc)
* Offers quick access to data for training, deploying, and developing applications

7. Cassandra:

Released in 2008, Cassandra is a distributed open-source NoSQL database that effectively manages vast amounts of data. It provides excellent scalability that supports multi-datacenter replication and automatic data replication. Cassandra database is ideal for applications that need prompt data access with high performance.
Latest version: Cassandra 4.1.0

Key features of the Cassandra database include:
* Easy to scale
* Highly scalable & comes with strong architecture
* Offers flexibility for data distribution
* Faster linear-scale performance
* Very flexible data storage
* Supports properties like Consistency, Atomicity, Isolation, and Durability

How Much Does The Web Application Database Cost?

In general, the average web app development cost ranges from $5,000 to $100,000. However, this cost depends on too many parameters like web app database complexity, features & functionalities, backend infrastructure, etc.

If you want to get a proper estimation of your web database application cost, you can take advantage of a web app cost calculator. For your convenience, we have listed the average web application development costs based on their categories.
Factors
Basic Web Apps
Medium Apps
Complex Apps
Highly Complex Apps
Estimated cost
$3,000 to $15,000
$15,000 to $60,000
$60,000 to $2,50,000
More than $250,000
Timeline
    . to 5 weeks
    . to 20 weeks
    . to 25 weeks
More than 9 months
Features
Simple landing page
Static content
Landing page
Database integration
Admin panel
User accounts
Online payment options
Third-party integrations
Landing page
Huge database integration
Admin panel
Multipleuser accounts
Online Payment options
Third-party integrations
Personalized features
Landing page
Top-notch database integration
Admin panel
Customized features
Examples
Online brochures
Portfolio
websites
MVP
Web portals
E-commerce websites
Online gaming sites with animation
Web applications for businesses
Automated billing systems
Human resources management system (HRMS)
Complex ecommerce websites
Custom web apps
On-demand web apps
App for complex businesses
High-end features with AI/ML integration
Custom web apps

Final Words

In the past, the process of selecting a database web application was straightforward. However, in this modern era of software development, this process has become very intrinsic as too many options are available today and the business requirements have also transformed.

For a business that works with small apps, NoSQL databases like MongoDB can be the best choice & for managing large & complex applications, databases like MySQL, MS SQL Server, and PostgreSQL can be the right choice. Would you like to know more about web applications with databases? Talk to our experts today.

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