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6530 views · 1 months ago

In modern software architecture, developers are constantly exploring new paradigms to enhance the performance, scalability, and maintainability of their applications. One such architectural pattern gaining popularity is Command Query Responsibility Segregation (CQRS). CQRS separates the responsibility of handling read and write operations, offering numerous benefits in complex systems. In this article, we'll delve into CQRS and explore its implementation in PHP.

What is CQRS?

CQRS, coined by Greg Young, is an architectural pattern that segregates the responsibility for handling read and write operations in a system. In traditional CRUD-based architectures, the same model is often used for both reading and writing data. However, CQRS advocates for a clear distinction between commands (write operations that modify state) and queries (read operations that retrieve data).

Key Concepts of CQRS:

. Command: Commands represent actions that modify the state of the system. They encapsulate the intent to perform an operation, such as creating, updating, or deleting data.
. Query: Queries retrieve data from the system without modifying its state. They are read-only operations used to fetch information for presentation or analysis.
. Command Handler: Responsible for processing commands by executing the necessary business logic and updating the system's state accordingly.
. Query Handler: Handles queries by retrieving data from the appropriate data source and returning the results to the caller.
. Separate Models: CQRS often involves maintaining separate models for commands and queries. This allows each model to be optimized for its specific use case, leading to improved performance and scalability.

Implementing CQRS in PHP:

Implementing CQRS in PHP involves structuring your application to separate command and query responsibilities effectively. Here's a high-level overview of how to implement CQRS in PHP:

1. Define Commands and Queries:

Start by defining the commands and queries your application will support. Commands should encapsulate actions that modify state, while queries should retrieve data.

class CreateProductCommand {
public $name;
public $price;

class GetProductQuery {
public $productId;

2. Create Command and Query Handlers:

Next, implement handlers for processing commands and queries. Command handlers execute the necessary business logic to fulfill the command, while query handlers retrieve data based on the query criteria.

class CreateProductCommandHandler {
public function handle(CreateProductCommand $command) {

class GetProductQueryHandler {
public function handle(GetProductQuery $query) {

3. Use Separate Models:

Maintain separate models for commands and queries to optimize each for its specific purpose. This separation allows you to design models tailored to the needs of write and read operations.

class Product {
public $name;
public $price;

class ProductView {
public $name;
public $price;

4. Wiring Everything Together:

Finally, wire up your command and query handlers to the appropriate endpoints or controllers in your application. Dispatch commands to their respective handlers and invoke query handlers to retrieve data.

$command = new CreateProductCommand();
$command->name = "Example Product";
$command->price = 99.99;

$handler = new CreateProductCommandHandler();

$query = new GetProductQuery();
$query->productId = 123;

$handler = new GetProductQueryHandler();
$product = $handler->handle($query);

Benefits of CQRS in PHP:

-Improved Scalability: Separating read and write operations allows you to scale each independently based on demand.

-Enhanced Performance: Optimizing models and handlers for specific tasks can lead to improved performance and responsiveness.

-Simplified Maintenance: Clear separation of concerns makes the codebase easier to understand, maintain, and extend over time.

-Flexibility: CQRS enables flexibility in choosing the most suitable data storage and retrieval mechanisms for different use cases.


CQRS is a powerful architectural pattern that offers numerous advantages for building complex and scalable PHP applications. By segregating command and query responsibilities, developers can achieve better performance, scalability, and maintainability in their systems. While implementing CQRS in PHP requires careful planning and design, the benefits it provides make it a compelling choice for projects requiring high performance and flexibility.
158 views · 1 months ago

Are you looking to dive into the world of relational databases but feeling overwhelmed by the options available? MariaDB might just be the perfect starting point for you. In this beginner's guide, we'll introduce you to MariaDB, an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS) that's renowned for its ease of use, scalability, and robust performance. Whether you're a budding developer, a small business owner, or just curious about databases, this guide will walk you through the basics of MariaDB and get you started on your database journey.

What is MariaDB?

MariaDB is a community-developed, open-source RDBMS that was forked from MySQL in 2009. It's designed to be a drop-in replacement for MySQL, meaning that most MySQL features and commands work seamlessly with MariaDB. This makes it an attractive option for those already familiar with MySQL or looking to migrate from it.

Features of MariaDB:

. Open-Source: MariaDB is distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL), making it freely available for anyone to use, modify, and distribute.
. High Performance: MariaDB is optimized for high performance, thanks to its efficient storage engines, query optimizer, and multi-threaded architecture.
. Scalability: Whether you're running a small-scale application or managing large-scale deployments, MariaDB can scale to meet your needs.
. Security: MariaDB takes security seriously, offering features such as encryption, role-based access control, and secure connections to ensure your data remains safe.
. Compatibility: As mentioned earlier, MariaDB strives to maintain compatibility with MySQL, which means you can easily migrate existing MySQL databases to MariaDB with minimal hassle.

Getting Started:


Getting started with MariaDB is straightforward. You can install it on various operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and macOS. Here's a basic overview of the installation process:

-Linux: Most Linux distributions offer MariaDB in their official repositories. You can install it using your package manager. For example, on Ubuntu, you can run sudo apt-get install mariadb-server.

-Windows/macOS: MariaDB provides installers for Windows and macOS on their official website. Simply download the installer and follow the on-screen instructions to complete the installation.


Once MariaDB is installed, you'll need to perform some initial configuration steps, such as setting up a root password and securing the installation. This typically involves running a configuration script or accessing the MariaDB command-line interface (CLI).

Creating Databases and Tables:

With MariaDB installed and configured, you can start creating databases and tables to store your data. You can do this using SQL commands or a graphical interface such as phpMyAdmin.

Here's a simple example of creating a database and a table:

CREATE DATABASE my_database;
USE my_database;

username VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL,

This creates a database named my_database and a table named users with columns for id, username, and email.

Performing Basic Queries:

Once you have your database and tables set up, you can start querying your data using SQL. Here are some basic examples of SQL queries:

-Inserting Data:
INSERT INTO users (username, email) VALUES ('john_doe', '[email protected]');

-Selecting Data:
SELECT * FROM users;

-Updating Data:
UPDATE users SET email = '[email protected]' WHERE username = 'john_doe';

-Deleting Data:
DELETE FROM users WHERE username = 'john_doe';


MariaDB is an excellent choice for beginners and experienced developers alike who are looking for a powerful, open-source relational database solution. In this guide, we've covered the basics of MariaDB, from installation to performing basic database operations. As you continue to explore MariaDB, you'll discover a wealth of features and capabilities that can help you build robust and scalable applications. So why wait? Dive into MariaDB today and unlock the full potential of relational databases.
9097 views · 5 years ago
When PHP Frameworks Suck


If you are working as a PHP software developer, there is an extremely high chance that all of your application, you’re currently working on, using frameworks of any kind.
PHP community developers of all levels worship frameworks since there are big historical and practical reasons for that.

Historical reasons

Since early PHP versions, developers were disreputable because not everybody considered PHP as a programming language, similar to JavaScript a couple of years ago. While strong type language existed decades ago, PHP continues to be soft type since now, only in version 7 basic types were introduced. There is also a matter of the fact that you can script in PHP without using a single object.

But that opened a space for frameworks to step in and introduce themselves as a tool or standard which will shape projects, give them right and order, introduce structure and rules.
And finally, they did. Frameworks are good examples of nice structures, using all available new features PHP offers with every version, enforcing some good practice, etc.

Practical reasons

The framework offers a lot of common problems already solved. They offer a nice ecosystem for other developers to contribute and plug their components. There is a lot of online resources for learning and stay updated about any particular framework. Also, what every framework community tries very hard, is to make setup and usage easy.


I recently had the opportunity to give a talk on a conference and one meetup about why PHP framework sometimes sucks. Sometimes things we see in framework tutorials does not seem to be very much aligned with some object-oriented standards we are striving to enforce, and with basic clean code guidelines. On the other hand, there is nothing wrong with using a framework, if you use it right.

This article is the first "pilot" article in this series. In every new blog in this series, we will go more in-depth about every specific topic I covered during my presentation.
I'm very excited to share this knowledge, as I saw many developers suffer from bonded-to-framework disease.

I won’t spend much time here on any particular framework discussion. This series will be just a guide on how to unbind yourself from frameworks and use them as a tool, instead of being independent.

**Here is the link to the presentation slides.**


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