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2016 views · 2 months ago

In the realm of web development, the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern stands as one of the most influential paradigms. It provides a structured approach to designing web applications, promoting modularity, scalability, and maintainability. In this guide, we'll delve into the MVC framework in PHP, exploring its key components, principles, and benefits.

Understanding MVC Architecture:

MVC separates an application into three interconnected components, each with its distinct responsibility:

Model: The model represents the application's data and business logic. It encapsulates the data structure, database interactions, and validation rules. In MVC, the model is responsible for managing data persistence and state.

View: The view is responsible for presenting data to the user in a visually appealing format. It encompasses the HTML markup, CSS styling, and client-side scripting necessary to render the user interface. Views are typically passive components that receive data from the controller and display it to the user.

Controller: The controller acts as an intermediary between the model and the view. It processes user requests, invokes the appropriate methods in the model to retrieve or manipulate data, and selects the appropriate view to render the response. Controllers handle user input, orchestrate business logic, and coordinate the flow of data between the model and the view.

Implementing MVC Framework in PHP:

PHP offers a robust foundation for building MVC-based web applications. Let's explore how to implement each component of the MVC pattern in PHP:


In PHP, models typically represent data entities and interact with the database. They encapsulate data access logic and provide methods for querying, inserting, updating, and deleting records. Here's a simplified example of a model class:

class User {
public function getUserById($userId) {

public function updateUser($userId, $userData) {



Views in PHP are responsible for generating HTML markup to render the user interface. They receive data from the controller and use it to dynamically generate the content displayed to the user. Views can include HTML templates with embedded PHP code or utilize template engines for better separation of concerns. Here's a basic example of a view:

<!DOCTYPE html>


<head> <title>User Profile</title>


<body> <h1>Welcome, <?php echo $user['username']; ?>!</h1> <p>Email: <?php echo $user['email']; ?></p>




Controllers in PHP handle user requests, process input data, and interact with models to retrieve or manipulate data. They select the appropriate view to render the response and pass data to the view for presentation. Controllers are responsible for defining application routes and managing the overall application flow. Here's an example of a controller method:

class UserController {
public function profile($userId) {
$userModel = new User();
$userData = $userModel->getUserById($userId);

include 'views/profile.php';

Benefits of MVC Framework in PHP:

Separation of Concerns: MVC promotes a clear separation of concerns, making it easier to manage code complexity and maintainability.

Modularity: Components in MVC are modular and reusable, allowing developers to build and extend applications more efficiently.

Testability: With distinct components, it becomes easier to write unit tests for models, views, and controllers independently.

Scalability: MVC facilitates the scalability of web applications by enabling developers to add new features or modify existing ones without impacting other parts of the system.


The MVC framework in PHP provides a robust architectural pattern for building scalable and maintainable web applications. By separating concerns into models, views, and controllers, developers can organize code more effectively, enhance testability, and streamline the development process. Whether you're building a simple blog or a complex enterprise application, leveraging the MVC pattern in PHP can significantly improve the quality and maintainability of your codebase.
241 views · 2 months ago

Are you looking to dive into the world of relational databases but feeling overwhelmed by the options available? MariaDB might just be the perfect starting point for you. In this beginner's guide, we'll introduce you to MariaDB, an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS) that's renowned for its ease of use, scalability, and robust performance. Whether you're a budding developer, a small business owner, or just curious about databases, this guide will walk you through the basics of MariaDB and get you started on your database journey.

What is MariaDB?

MariaDB is a community-developed, open-source RDBMS that was forked from MySQL in 2009. It's designed to be a drop-in replacement for MySQL, meaning that most MySQL features and commands work seamlessly with MariaDB. This makes it an attractive option for those already familiar with MySQL or looking to migrate from it.

Features of MariaDB:

. Open-Source: MariaDB is distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL), making it freely available for anyone to use, modify, and distribute.
. High Performance: MariaDB is optimized for high performance, thanks to its efficient storage engines, query optimizer, and multi-threaded architecture.
. Scalability: Whether you're running a small-scale application or managing large-scale deployments, MariaDB can scale to meet your needs.
. Security: MariaDB takes security seriously, offering features such as encryption, role-based access control, and secure connections to ensure your data remains safe.
. Compatibility: As mentioned earlier, MariaDB strives to maintain compatibility with MySQL, which means you can easily migrate existing MySQL databases to MariaDB with minimal hassle.

Getting Started:


Getting started with MariaDB is straightforward. You can install it on various operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and macOS. Here's a basic overview of the installation process:

-Linux: Most Linux distributions offer MariaDB in their official repositories. You can install it using your package manager. For example, on Ubuntu, you can run sudo apt-get install mariadb-server.

-Windows/macOS: MariaDB provides installers for Windows and macOS on their official website. Simply download the installer and follow the on-screen instructions to complete the installation.


Once MariaDB is installed, you'll need to perform some initial configuration steps, such as setting up a root password and securing the installation. This typically involves running a configuration script or accessing the MariaDB command-line interface (CLI).

Creating Databases and Tables:

With MariaDB installed and configured, you can start creating databases and tables to store your data. You can do this using SQL commands or a graphical interface such as phpMyAdmin.

Here's a simple example of creating a database and a table:

CREATE DATABASE my_database;
USE my_database;

username VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL,

This creates a database named my_database and a table named users with columns for id, username, and email.

Performing Basic Queries:

Once you have your database and tables set up, you can start querying your data using SQL. Here are some basic examples of SQL queries:

-Inserting Data:
INSERT INTO users (username, email) VALUES ('john_doe', '[email protected]');

-Selecting Data:
SELECT * FROM users;

-Updating Data:
UPDATE users SET email = '[email protected]' WHERE username = 'john_doe';

-Deleting Data:
DELETE FROM users WHERE username = 'john_doe';


MariaDB is an excellent choice for beginners and experienced developers alike who are looking for a powerful, open-source relational database solution. In this guide, we've covered the basics of MariaDB, from installation to performing basic database operations. As you continue to explore MariaDB, you'll discover a wealth of features and capabilities that can help you build robust and scalable applications. So why wait? Dive into MariaDB today and unlock the full potential of relational databases.
264 views · 5 months ago

Today’s digital transformation has significantly empowered every company to produce accurate information at all touch points. Whether it’s a large-scale enterprise or a small private venture, every organization irrespective of all sizes needs proper web app development services to build a sophisticated database for storing and managing its data. Examples of web applications include customer relationship management (CRM) systems, project management tools, and e-commerce platforms. These custom software developers play a crucial role in tailoring web applications to meet specific business needs, ensuring seamless integration and optimal functionality.

A database is a set of a vast range of structured & unstructured data stored in a system and adequately managed through DBMS or Database Management System. The data stored in the database is highly sensitive, hence companies need to be careful while accessing any data or information.

When considering the development of web applications, partnering with a reputable web development firm is essential to ensure the seamless integration and efficient management of databases. A skilled web development firm possesses the expertise to optimize database systems, enhancing data organization, security, and retrieval processes for an enhanced user experience. In this article, we will delve into the top database solutions for web applications in 2024 and explore the advantages they bring to the forefront of modern software development.

Types of Databases For Web Applications

Depending on your business model, industry domain, and other factors, your business application system will have certain requirements. Different databases types are used for different enterprise requirements. However, the database is technically divided into two types: SQL & NoSQL.

SQL or Structured Query Language is a relational database that comes with a relational structure. This is used for managing structured data only. On the other hand, the NoSQL database doesn’t have any relational structure & they are used to store unstructured data types. For your convenience, we have shared a complete comparison of both databases below.

SQL Databases
NoSQL Databases
Mix of proprietary & open-source
Open source database
Comes with rational structure
No rational structure
Ideal for managing structured data
Best for storing unstructured & semi-structured data
Vertically scalable
Horizontally scalable
Examples: MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, etc
Examples: MongoDB, Cassandra, Firebase, etc

Enterprises have deeply relied on SQL to manage all their databases in web apps, but as cloud, microservices & distributed applications become popular, there are NoSQL options also available. Before you choose the right database, you must consider a number of factors such as size, structure & scalability requirements. Apart from that, you need to consider some of the following questions also:
* What type of data structure do you need?
* What is the amount of data you want to store?
* What is your total budget?
* Does it allow for support contracts & software licenses?
* What is the requirement for your data security?
* What third-party tools do you want to add to your database?

Best Databases For Web Applications In 2024

Finding out the right database option for a web app development may impact the scalability and success of any project. With too many options available, it’s quite challenging to select which one is the best for you. 2024’s widely-popular databases include:

1. MySQL:

MySQL is one of the best open-source relational databases developed by Oracle Corporation in 1995. According to the Stack Overflow developer survey, this database was used by 46.8% as of 2022. The robustness, maturity, and stability of this database make it perfect for web applications. Moreover, MySQL database uses a structured language & written in C & C++.
Latest version: MySQL 8.0.33

Key features of MySQL database include:
* Easy to deploy & manage
* It supports Consistency, Atomicity, Isolation & Durability
* It’s an RDBMS or Relational Database Management System
* Provides fast-loading utilities with several memory caches to maintain servers
* Offers top-notch results without compromising any functionality
* Contains solid Data Security layers to offer complete security solutions

2. PostgreSQL:

Launched in 1996, PostgreSQL is also a very popular database used as a data warehouse or primary data store for web, analytics, geospatial and mobile applications. This is also an open-source SQL-based RDBMS (relational database management system) that supports C, C++, C#, Ruby, Java, Python, and other programming languages. This agile database is compatible with different OSs such as Windows, Linux, Unix, MacOSX, etc.
Latest version: PostgreSQL 15.3

Key features of the PostgreSQL database include
* Houses different constraints such as primary keys, foreign keys, exclusion constraints, explicit locks, advisory locks, etc
* Supports different SQL features like SQL Sub-selects, Multi-Version Concurrency Control,
* Streaming Replication, complex queries, etc.
* Compatible with different data types like Structured, Customizations, Primitives, Geometry & Documents.
* Supports MVCC or multi-version concurrency control

3. Microsoft SQL Server:

Launched in 1989, Microsoft SQL Server is a powerful RDBMS used for transaction processing, analytics applications, and business intelligence in IT environments. It comes with built-in intelligence & enables businesses to boost their performance, security, and availability seamlessly. MS SQL Server comes in different editions with authentication & security features.
Latest version: Microsoft SQL Server 2022

Key features of the Microsoft SQL Server database include:
* Available on both Linux & Windows platforms
* Supports semi-structured, structured, and spatial data
* It has a custom-built graphical integration
* Helps users build different designs and tables without syntax
* Comes with several features for protection, monitoring, and data classification
* Gives alerts on security gaps, misconfigurations & suspicious activities

4. MongoDB:

MongoDB is a document-oriented open-source NoSQL database used for high-volume data storage. Written in JavaScript, C++, and Python, this is a very flexible and scalable database platform that removes relational DB approaches. MongoDB offers a high level of flexibility through load balancing and horizontal scaling capacities. This is a perfect option for web apps that need high performance.
Latest version: MongoDB 6.0.5

Key features of the MongoDB database include:
* Effectively supports ad hoc queries
* Highly scalable & flexible database
* Offers schema-less database
* Appropriate indexing for query executions
* Replication for data availability & stability

5. Oracle:

Oracle is a very popular RDBMS that is known for its high-performance and cost-optimization solutions. This is a commercial relational database written in C, C++ & Java. Oracle comes with a relational database architecture that offers an easy, scalable, performant solution for accessing, defining, and managing data.
Latest version: Oracle 21c

Key features of the Oracle database include:
* Executes fast backup & recovery
* Provides multiple database support
* Offers superior scalability
* Offers better user controls and identity management
* Utilizes a single database for every data type

6. Redis:

Redis stands for Remote Dictionary Server and is a widely-used open-source database used for web applications and cache management. Redis can also be used with different streaming solutions like Amazon Kinesis & Apache Kafka to analyze & process real-time data.

This database also supports different data structures like lists, streams, bitmaps, strings, maps, and so on. Because of its high performance, Redis is vastly used in many sectors such as IoT, Gaming, Financial Services, etc.
Latest version: Redis 7.0.11

Key features of the Redis database include:
* Provides premium speed with improved caching & in-memory capabilities.
* Supports a variety of data structures (strings, hashes, lists, bitmaps, HyperLogLogs, etc)
* Compatible with different languages (Java, PHP, Python, C, C#, C++, etc)
* Offers quick access to data for training, deploying, and developing applications

7. Cassandra:

Released in 2008, Cassandra is a distributed open-source NoSQL database that effectively manages vast amounts of data. It provides excellent scalability that supports multi-datacenter replication and automatic data replication. Cassandra database is ideal for applications that need prompt data access with high performance.
Latest version: Cassandra 4.1.0

Key features of the Cassandra database include:
* Easy to scale
* Highly scalable & comes with strong architecture
* Offers flexibility for data distribution
* Faster linear-scale performance
* Very flexible data storage
* Supports properties like Consistency, Atomicity, Isolation, and Durability

How Much Does The Web Application Database Cost?

In general, the average web app development cost ranges from $5,000 to $100,000. However, this cost depends on too many parameters like web app database complexity, features & functionalities, backend infrastructure, etc.

If you want to get a proper estimation of your web database application cost, you can take advantage of a web app cost calculator. For your convenience, we have listed the average web application development costs based on their categories.
Basic Web Apps
Medium Apps
Complex Apps
Highly Complex Apps
Estimated cost
$3,000 to $15,000
$15,000 to $60,000
$60,000 to $2,50,000
More than $250,000
    . to 5 weeks
    . to 20 weeks
    . to 25 weeks
More than 9 months
Simple landing page
Static content
Landing page
Database integration
Admin panel
User accounts
Online payment options
Third-party integrations
Landing page
Huge database integration
Admin panel
Multipleuser accounts
Online Payment options
Third-party integrations
Personalized features
Landing page
Top-notch database integration
Admin panel
Customized features
Online brochures
Web portals
E-commerce websites
Online gaming sites with animation
Web applications for businesses
Automated billing systems
Human resources management system (HRMS)
Complex ecommerce websites
Custom web apps
On-demand web apps
App for complex businesses
High-end features with AI/ML integration
Custom web apps

Final Words

In the past, the process of selecting a database web application was straightforward. However, in this modern era of software development, this process has become very intrinsic as too many options are available today and the business requirements have also transformed.

For a business that works with small apps, NoSQL databases like MongoDB can be the best choice & for managing large & complex applications, databases like MySQL, MS SQL Server, and PostgreSQL can be the right choice. Would you like to know more about web applications with databases? Talk to our experts today.
7945 views · 5 years ago
Standalone PHP Class for Managing Session Based Multiple Cart

Hi Guys,

I am sharing you a standalone class for managing a session based cart system. In this class I have provided multiple methods for adding, updating and deleting the products. and By using this class you may manage multiple cart objects with different data only you need to pass a different key in constructor of that class.

Let me share you the How can we use that Class:

Include The cart class

require 'PhpKart.class.php';

Create a Cart Object initializing the Cart base key name, by using different keys we can manage multiple cart data in a same project , like main cart or wishlist

$obj1 = new PhpKart("MainCart");

Here Maincart is the keyname in which $obj1 insert/modify/delete the data

Adding any product inside cart


Where parameter1 is product, id,parameter 2 is quantity, and Parameter 3 is product information Array

Now If we want to update the quantity in product_id=123 with quantity 5 then use following:


Here we did not pass the information array again because no matter you pass or not if the product information is already added in the cart then if won't be affected So no ned to pass this, only pass product id and its Quantity

If we want to add another product:


Now we have a case what if our product is already having some quantity and we want to increase into it or decrease into it, Then to retrieve the already added product information, using AlreadyExists method by passing product id,it will return array if it exists and it will return boolean false if not exists:

if($already_exists !== false )

If we want to remove any product from cart:


If we want to get all products from the current cart

print_r( $obj1->getAllItems() );

It will return you an array with all the items exist in the current cart

Getting all item's count inside the current cart

echo $obj1->getTotalItems(); 

If we want to get calculate total amount in the current cart

echo $obj1->getCartTotalAmount($priceKeyName='Price')

Note: In the above snippet we need to provide teh same key name which we have used for product price in project information array at the time of adding items in cart array, and need to take the same key name in all the products inserting in Same Cart

If we want to clear/reset the current cart then use following:


Now if we want to save some other user interested items separately which use likes but don't want to buy now so that items can be Add into wishlist So we need to create new object with different cart ket name and that list will be manage separately using it's object. Like Following:

Create new Object by passing different Key

$obj2=new PhpKart("MyWishlist"); 

Add a new item to $obj2 object containing the items user want to add in his/her wishlist

$obj2->add_to_cart($product_id=159,$quantity=8,$product_information=array("product_name"=>"Baby Toy","Price"=>100));

Show the total cart Amount

echo $obj2->getCartTotalAmount("Price"); 

Full Source Code

Following is the full code for that cart managing Class . Just create a file named PhpKart.class.php and add following code in it:


class PhpKart{

private $cart_key;

public function __construct($CartkeyName)
public function add_to_cart($product_id,$quantity='1',$product_information=array())
if(!isset($_SESSION[$this->cart_key][$product_id]['product_information']) && !empty($product_information)){
public function remove_from_cart($product_id)
public function clear_cart()
public function getTotalItems()
return count($_SESSION[$this->cart_key]);
public function getCartTotalAmount($price_key_name)
foreach($_SESSION[$this->cart_key] as $row)
$total += ($row['product_information'][$price_key_name]*$row['quantity']);

return $total;
public function AlreadyExists($product_id)
if (isset($_SESSION[$this->cart_key][$product_id]))
return $_SESSION[$this->cart_key][$product_id];
return false;
public function getAllItems()
return $_SESSION[$this->cart_key];