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3001 views · 1 years ago
Create your first PHP app

PHP is an incredibly powerful programming languaage, one that powers roughly 80% of the web! But it's also one of the easier languages to learn as you can see your changes in real time, without having to compile or wait for the code to repackage your app or website.

Defining a PHP script


To get started, create a file called "myfirstpage.php." You can actually call it anything you'd like, but the important part here is the extension: .php. This tells the server to treat this page as a PHP script.

Now let's go ahead and create a basic HTML page:


<html>

<head>

<title>Hello</title>

</head>

<body>

Hello

</body>

</html>


Go ahead and save your page and upload it to any host that supports PHP. Now visit your page and you should see a page that outputs "Hello."

Echo content


Now let's add some PHP code to our script. To signal the server to render PHP code we first open with the <?php tag, then we write our PHP code, and finally close it with the ?> tag. This is important as if we were creating an XML file and forgot to escape the opening XML tag which also has a question mark, we would run into a fatal error.

Now let's write some PHP code that tells the server to echo specific output. To echo or print the content on the page we can use the echo statement in our PHP code by placing the text we want to echo in single quotes and then end the command with a semi colon. Let's echo out "there!":


<html>

<head>

<title>Hello</title>

</head>

<body>

Hello <?php echo 'there!'; ?>

</body>

</html>


Now upload your script and test it on your webhost. You should now see "Hello there!" on your screen. Now this isn't as exciting since we could do the same thing in HTML without PHP, so let's create dynamic content based on the URL string.

Using $_GET

PHP allows you to interact with your visitors and handle incoming data. This means that you can use either the URL (querystring) or forms to retrieve user input. There are additional ways to access data as well, but we will not be covering those in this introduction.

In your browser, add the following to the end of your url: ?name=yourname


The full URL should now look like myfirstpage.php?name=yourname

You'll notice when you visit this page nothing happens - so let's change that! To access the value of name in the querystring, we can use $_GET['name'] like so:


<html>

<head>

<title>Hello</title>

</head>

<body>

Hello <?php echo $_GET['name']; ?>

</body>

</html>


You'll notice that unlike the text "there!" that the GET is not in quotes - this is because this is a variable and by not placing it in quotes we're telling PHP to render this as a variable and not as text. If we leave the single quotes, instead of saying "Hello yourname" it would say "Hello $_GET['name']."

Using logic and defining variables


Along with getting user input, you can also create conditions to determine what content should be output. For example, we can determine whether or not to say "Good morning" or "Good evening" depending on the time, along with your name using the querystring.

To do this, we'll be using if, elseif, and else along with the PHP date() function. You can learn more about how to use different date formats to output the date here, but we'll be using the date() function to get back the hour of the day (based on the server's time) between 0 (midnight) and 23 (11pm). We'll then use greater than (>) to determine what to assign to our $time variable which we'll output with the user's name.


<html>

<head>

<title>Hello</title>

</head>

<body>

<?php

if(date("G") > 18) {

$time = 'evening';

} elseif (date("G") > 12) {

$time = 'afternoon';

} else {

$time = 'morning';

}

echo 'Good '.$time.' '.$_GET['name'];

?>

</body>

</html>


Now upload your script again to the web server and refresh the page. Depending on the time of the server you should see either Good morning, Good afternoon, or Good evening followed by your name.

If you get an error, or the page is blank, make sure you have closed all of your quotes and have a semicolon after your statements/ commands. Missing a quote or semicolon is one of the most common causes of PHP errors.

You may also receive an error if the timezone has not been set on your server. To resolve this (or change the timezone/ output of the script) try adding this line as the first line following the opening PHP bracket (<?php):


date_default_timezone_set('America/Los_Angeles');


With that you have created your first PHP script and have already taken advantage of many of the fundamentals used in every PHP program. While there is more to learn you are well on your way, and have a great start on defining variables, using user input, and taking advantage of PHP's built in functions.


Want more? Go even further with our Beginning PHP video training course!
14783 views · 3 years ago
Introduction to Gitlab CI for PHP developers
As a developer, you've probably at least heard something about CI - Continuous integration. And if you haven't - you better fix it ASAP, because that's something awesome to have on your skill list and can get extremely helpful in your everyday work. This post will focus on CI for PHP devs, and specifically, on CI implementation from Gitlab. I will suppose you know the basics of Git, PHP, PHPUnit, Docker and unix shell. Intended audience - intermediate PHP devs.
Adding something to your workflow must serve a purpose. In this case the goal is to automate routine tasks and achieve better quality control. Even a basic PHP project IMO needs the following:
* linter) checks (cannot merge changes that are invalid on the syntax level)
* Code style checks
* Unit and integration tests
All of those can be just run eventually, of course. But I prefer an automated CI approach even in my personal projects because it leads to a higher level of discipline, you simply can't avoid following a set of rules that you've developed. Also, it reduces a risk of releasing a bug or regression, thus improving quality.
Gitlab is as generous as giving you their CI for free, even for your private repos. At this point it is starting to look as advertising, therefore a quick comparison table for Gitlab, Github, Bitbucket. AFAIK, Github does not have a built-in solution, instead it is easily integrated with third parties, of which Travis CI seems to be the most popular - I will therefore mention Travis here.

Public repositories (OSS projects). All 3 providers have a free offer for the open-source community!


| Provider | Limits |
|---|---|
| Gitlab | 2,000 CI pipeline minutes per group per month, shared runners |
| Travis | Apparently unlimited |
| Bitbucket| 50 min/month, max 5 users, File storage <= 1Gb/month |

Private repositories


| Provider | Price | Limits |
|---|---|---|
| Gitlab | Free | 2,000 CI pipeline minutes per group per month, shared runners |
| Travis | $69/month | Unlimited builds, 1 job at a time |
| Bitbucket| Free | 50 min/month, max 5 users, File storage <= 1Gb/month |

Getting started

I made a small project based on Laravel framework and called it "ci-showcase". I work in Linux environment, and the commands I use in the examples, are for linux shell. They should be pretty much the same on Mac and nearly the same on Windows though.
composer create-project laravel/laravel ci-showcase

Next, I went to gitlab website and created a new public project: https://gitlab.com/crocodile2u/ci-showcase. Cloned the repo and copied all files and folders from the newly created project - the the new git repo. In the root folder, I placed a .gitignore file:
.idea
vendor
.env

Then the .env file:
APP_ENV=development

Then I generated the application encryption key: php artisan key:generate, and then I wanted to verify that the primary setup works as expected: ./vendor/bin/phpunit, which produced the output OK (2 tests, 2 assertions). Nice, time to commit this: git commit &amp;&amp; git push

At this point, we don't yet have any CI, let's do something about it!

Adding .gitlab-ci.yml

Everyone going to implement CI with Gitlab, is strongly encouraged to bookmark this page: https://docs.gitlab.com/ee/ci/README.html. I will simply provide a short introduction course here plus a bit of boilerplate code to get you started easier.
First QA check that we're going to add is PHP syntax check. PHP has a built-in linter, which you can invoke like this: php -l my-file.php. This is what we're going to use. Because the php -l command doesn't support multiple files as arguments, I've written a small wrapper shell script and saved it to ci/linter.sh:
#!/bin/sh
files=<code>sh ci/get-changed-php-files.sh | xargs</code>last_status=0
status=0
# Loop through changed PHP files and run php -l on each
for f in "$files" ; do message=<code>php -l $f</code> last_status="$?" if [ "$last_status" -ne "0" ]; then # Anything fails -> the whole thing fails echo "PHP Linter is not happy about $f: $message" status="$last_status" fi
done
if [ "$status" -ne "0" ]; then echo "PHP syntax validation failed!"
fi
exit $status

Most of the time, you don't actually want to check each and every PHP file that you have. Instead, it's better to check only those files that have been changed. The Gitlab pipeline runs on every push to the repository, and there is a way to know which PHP files have been changed. Here's a simple script, meet ci/get-changed-php-files.sh:
#!/bin/sh
# What's happening here?
#
# 1. We get names and statuses of files that differ in current branch from their state in origin/master.
# These come in form (multiline)
# 2. The output from git diff is filtered by unix grep utility, we only need files with names ending in .php
# 3. One more filter: filter *out* (grep -v) all lines starting with R or D.
# D means "deleted", R means "renamed"
# 4. The filtered status-name list is passed on to awk command, which is instructed to take only the 2nd part
# of every line, thus just the filename
git diff --name-status origin/master | grep '\.php$' | grep -v "^[RD]" | awk '{ print }'

These scripts can easily be tested in your local environment ( at least if you have a Linux machine, that is ;-) ).
Now, as we have our first check, we'll finally create our .gitlab-ci.yml. This is where your pipeline is declared using YAML notation:
# we're using this beautiful tool for our pipeline: https://github.com/jakzal/phpqa
image: jakzal/phpqa:alpine
# For this sample pipeline, we'll only have 1 stage, in real-world you would like to also add at least "deploy"
stages: - QA
linter:
stage: QA
# this is the main part: what is actually executed
script: - sh ci/get-changed-php-files.sh | xargs sh ci/linter.sh

The first line is image: jakzal/phpqa:alpine and it's telling Gitlab that we want to run our pipeline using a PHP-QA utility by jakzal. It is a docker image containing PHP and a huge variety of QA-tools. We declare one stage - QA, and this stage by now has just a single job named linter. Every job can have it's own docker image, but we don't need that for the purpose of this tutorial. Our project reaches Step 2. Once I had pushed these changes, I immediately went to the project's CI/CD page. Aaaand.... the pipeline was already running! I clicked on the linter job and saw the following happy green output:
Running with gitlab-runner 11.9.0-rc2 (227934c0) on docker-auto-scale ed2dce3a
Using Docker executor with image jakzal/phpqa:alpine ...
Pulling docker image jakzal/phpqa:alpine ...
Using docker image sha256:12bab06185e59387a4bf9f6054e0de9e0d5394ef6400718332c272be8956218f for jakzal/phpqa:alpine ...
Running on runner-ed2dce3a-project-11318734-concurrent-0 via runner-ed2dce3a-srm-1552606379-07370f92...
Initialized empty Git repository in /builds/crocodile2u/ci-showcase/.git/
Fetching changes...
Created fresh repository.
From https://gitlab.com/crocodile2u/ci-showcase * [new branch] master -> origin/master * [new branch] step-1 -> origin/step-1 * [new branch] step-2 -> origin/step-2
Checking out 1651a4e3 as step-2...
Skipping Git submodules setup
$ sh ci/get-changed-php-files.sh | xargs sh ci/linter.sh
Job succeeded

It means that our pipeline was successfully created and run!

PHP Code Sniffer.

PHP Code Sniffer is a tool for keeping app of your PHP files in one uniform code style. It has a hell of customizations and settings, but here we will only perform simple check for compatibilty with PSR-2 standard. A good practice is to create a configuration XML file in your project. I will put it in the root folder. Code sniffer can use a few file names, of which I prefer phpcs.xml:
<?xml version="1.0"?>
/resources

I also will append another section to .gitlab-ci.yml:
code-style:	stage: QA	script:	# Variable $files will contain the list of PHP files that have changes	- files=<code>sh ci/get-changed-php-files.sh</code> # If this list is not empty, we execute the phpcs command on all of them - if [ ! -z "$files" ]; then echo $files | xargs phpcs; fi

Again, we check only those PHP files that differ from master branch, and pass their names to phpcs utility. That's it, Step 3 is finished! If you go to see the pipeline now, you will notice that linter and code-style jobs run in parallel.

Adding PHPUnit

Unit and integration tests are essential for a successful and maintaiable modern software project. In PHP world, PHPUnit is de facto standard for these purposes. The PHPQA docker image already has PHPUnit, but that's not enough. Our project is based on Laravel, which means it depends on a bunch of third-party libraries, Laravel itself being one of them. Those are installed into vendor folder with composer. You might have noticed that our .gitignore file has vendor folder as one of it entries, which means that it is not managed by the Version Control System. Some prefer their dependencies to be part of their Git repository, I prefer to have only the composer.json declarations in Git. Makes the repo much much smaller than the other way round, also makes it easy to avoid bloating your production builds with libraries only needed for development.
Composer is also included into PHPQA docker image, and we can enrich our .gitlab-ci.yml:
test:	stage: QA	cache:	key: dependencies-including-dev	paths: - vendor/	script:	- composer install	- ./vendor/bin/phpunit

PHPUnit requires some configuration, but in the very beginning we used composer create-project to create our project boilerplate.laravel/laravel package has a lot of things included in it, and phpunit.xml is also one of them. All I had to do was to add another line to it:
xml

APP_KEY enironment variable is essential for Laravel to run, so I generated a key with php artisan key:generate.
git commit & git push, and we have all three jobs on theQA stage!

Checking that our checks work

In this branch I intentionally added changes that should fail all three job in our pipeline, take a look at git diff. And we have this out from the pipeline stages:Linter:
$ ci/linter.sh
PHP Linter is not happy about app/User.php:
Parse error: syntax error, unexpected 'syntax' (T_STRING), expecting function (T_FUNCTION) or const (T_CONST) in app/User.php on line 11
Errors parsing app/User.php
PHP syntax validation failed!
ERROR: Job failed: exit code 255

**Code-style**:
$ if [ ! -z "$files" ]; then echo $files | xargs phpcs; fi
FILE: ...ilds/crocodile2u/ci-showcase/app/Http/Controllers/Controller.php
----------------------------------------------------------------------
FOUND 0 ERRORS AND 1 WARNING AFFECTING 1 LINE
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 13 | WARNING | Line exceeds 120 characters; contains 129 characters
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Time: 39ms; Memory: 6MB
ERROR: Job failed: exit code 123

**test**:
$ ./vendor/bin/phpunit
PHPUnit 7.5.6 by Sebastian Bergmann and contributors.
F. 2 / 2 (100%)
Time: 102 ms, Memory: 14.00 MB
There was 1 failure:
1) Tests\Unit\ExampleTest::testBasicTest
This test is now failing
Failed asserting that false is true.
/builds/crocodile2u/ci-showcase/tests/Unit/ExampleTest.php:17
FAILURES!
Tests: 2, Assertions: 2, Failures: 1.
ERROR: Job failed: exit code 1

Congratulations, our pipeline is running, and we now have much less chance of messing up the result of our work.

Conclusion

Now you know how to set up a basic QA pipeline for your PHP project. There's still a lot to learn. Pipeline is a powerful tool. For instance, it can make deployments to different environments for you. Or it can build docker images, store artifacts and more! Sounds cool? Then spend 5 minutes of your time and leave a comment, you can also tell me if there is a pipeline topic you would like to be covered in next posts.
13391 views · 4 years ago
PHP IPC with Daemon Service using Message Queues, Shared Memory and Semaphores

Introduction

In a previous article we learned about Creating a PHP Daemon Service. Now we are going to learn how to use methods to perform IPC - Inter-Process Communication - to communicate with daemon processes.

Message Queues

In the world of UNIX, there is an incredible variety of ways to send a message or a command to a daemon script and vice versa. But first I want to talk only about message queues - "System V IPC Messages Queues".

A long time ago I learned that a queue can be either in the System V IPC implementation, or in the POSIX implementation. I want to comment only about the System V implementation, as I know it better.

Lets get started. At the "normal" operating system level, queues are stored in memory. Queue data structures are available to all system programs. Just as in the file system, it is possible to configure queues access rights and message size. Usually a queue message size is small, less than 8 KB.

This introductory part is over. Lets move on to the practice with same example scripts.queue-send.php
$key = ftok(__FILE__, 'A'); 
$queue = msg_get_queue($key);

msg_send($queue, 1, 'message, type 1');
msg_send($queue, 2, 'message, type 2');
msg_send($queue, 3, 'message, type 3');
msg_send($queue, 1, 'message, type 1');

echo "send 4 messages
";

queue-receive.php
$key = ftok('queue-send.php', 'A');
$queue = msg_get_queue($key);

for ($i = 1; $i <= 3; $i++) {
echo "type: {$i}
";

while ( msg_receive($queue, $i, $msgtype, 4096, $message, false, MSG_IPC_NOWAIT) ) {
echo "type: {$i}, msgtype: {$msgtype}, message: {$message}
";
}
}


Lets run on the first stage of the file queue-send.php, and then queue-receive.php.
u% php queue-send.php
send 4 messages
u% php queue-receive.php
type: 1
type: 1, msgtype: 1, message: s:15:"message, type 1";
type: 1, msgtype: 1, message: s:15:"message, type 1";
type: 2
type: 2, msgtype: 2, message: s:15:"message, type 2";
type: 3
type: 3, msgtype: 3, message: s:15:"message, type 3";


You may notice that the messages have been grouped. The first group gathered 2 messages of the first type, and then the remaining messages.

If we would have indicated to receive messages of type 0, you would get all messages, regardless of the type.
while (msg_receive($queue, $i, $msgtype, 4096, $message, false, MSG_IPC_NOWAIT)) {


Here it is worth noting another feature of the queues: if we do not use the constant MSG_IPC_NOWAIT in the script and run the script queue-receive.php from a terminal, and then run periodically the file queue-send.php, we see how a daemon can effectively use this to wait jobs.queue-receive-wait.php
$key = ftok('queue-send.php', 'A');
$queue = msg_get_queue($key);

while ( msg_receive($queue, 0, $msgtype, 4096, $message) ) {
echo "msgtype: {$msgtype}, message: {$message}
";
}


Actually that is the most interesting information of all I have said. There are also functions to get statistics, disposal and checking for the existence of queues.

Lets now try to write a daemon listening to a queue:queue-daemon.php
$pid = pcntl_fork();
$key = ftok('queue-send.php', 'A');
$queue = msg_get_queue($key);

if ($pid == -1) {
exit;
} elseif ($pid) {
exit;
} else {
while ( msg_receive($queue, 0, $msgtype, 4096, $message) ) {
echo "msgtype: {$msgtype}, message: {$message}
";
}
}

posix_setsid();


Shared Memory

We have learned to work with queues, with which you can send small system messages. But then we may certainly be faced with the task of transmitting large amounts of data. My favorite type of system, System V, has solved the problem of rapid transmission and preservation of large data in memory using a mechanism calledShared Memory.

In short, the data in the Shared Memory lives until the system is rebooted. Since the data is in memory, it works much faster than if it was stored in a database somewhere in a file, or, God forgive me on a network share.

Lets try to write a simple example of data storage.shared-memory-write-base.php
$id = ftok(__FILE__, 'A');


$shmId = shm_attach($id);

$var = 1;

if (shm_has_var($shmId, $var)) {
$data = (array) shm_get_var($shmId, $var);
} else {
$data = array();
}

$data[time()] = file_get_contents(__FILE__);

shm_put_var($shmId, $var, $data);


Run this script several times to save the value in memory. Now lets write a script only to read from the memory.shared-memory-read-base.php
$id = ftok(__DIR__ . '/shared-memory-write-base.php', 'A');
$shmId = shm_attach($id);
$var = 1;

if (shm_has_var($shmId, $var)) {
$data = (array) shm_get_var($shmId, $var);
} else {
$data = array();
}

foreach ($data as $key => $value) {
$path = "/tmp/$key.php";
file_put_contents($path, $value);

echo $path . PHP_EOL;
}


Semaphores

So, in general terms, it should be clear for you by now how to work with shared memory. The only problems left to figure out are about a couple of nuances, such as: "What to do if two processes want to record one block of memory?" Or "How to store binary files of any size?".

To prevent simultaneous accesses we will use semaphores. Semaphores allow us to flag that we want to have exclusive access to some resource, like for instance a shared memory block. While that happens other processes will wait for their turn on semaphore.

In this code it explained clearly:shared-memory-semaphors.php

$id = ftok(__FILE__, 'A');

$semId = sem_get($id);

sem_acquire($semId);

$data = file_get_contents(__DIR__.'/06050396.JPG', FILE_BINARY);

$shmId = shm_attach($id, strlen($data)+4096);
$var = 1;

if (shm_has_var($shmId, $var)) {
$data = shm_get_var($shmId, $var);

$filename = '/tmp/' . time();
file_put_contents($filename, $data, FILE_BINARY);

shm_remove($shmId);
} else {
shm_put_var($shmId, $var, $data);
}

sem_release($semId);


Now you can use the md5sum command line utility to compare two files, the original and the saved file. Or, you can open the file in image editor or whatever prefer to compare the images.

With this we are done with shared memory and semaphores. As your homework I want to ask you to write code that a demon will use semaphores to access shared memory.

Conclusion

Exchanging data between the daemons is very simple. This article described two options for data exchange: message queues and shared memory.

Post a comment here if you have questions or comments about how to exchange data with daemon services in PHP.
16035 views · 4 years ago
Install Composer for PHP

Composer is a must-have tool for every PHP developer these days. This page is a simple breakdown of quick-install instructions.

How do I install composer?
   

. Use PHP to download the composer installer, place it in the current directory, and name it composer-setup.php


    . Use PHP to check the hash of the file you downloaded and compare it to the known value of the hash. You can always find the current value of the hash for the installer on the Composer Public Keys / Signatures page.
   
. Run the setup program to install composer. This does more than just download the latest copy of composer, it also sets up your local ~/.composer directory. This will install composer into the current directory. You can add the --install-dir=DIR to specify where you want composer installed. You can also specify --filename=composer to change the installed filename. You can use anything you like that doesn’t already exist in your specified directory, you don’t have to use the name composer. This is a great way to get rid of the .phar at the end of the name if you don’t like it.
   
. Use PHP to remove the installer from the current directory.

To install composer for PHP you use PHP to download the installer, set a few options, and then actually perform the install.

php -r "copy('https://getcomposer.org/installer', 'composer-setup.php');"

php -r "if (hash_file('SHA384', 'composer-setup.php') === '55d6ead61b29c7bdee5cccfb50076874187bd9f21f65d8991d46ec5cc90518f447387fb9f76ebae1fbbacf329e583e30') { echo 'Installer verified'; } else { echo 'Installer corrupt'; unlink('composer-setup.php'); } echo PHP_EOL;"

php composer-setup.php

php -r "unlink('composer-setup.php');"


Below is a version you can copy ‘n paste.

Breakdown:

Recommended Setup for Linux and macOS:

php -r "copy('https://getcomposer.org/installer', 'composer-setup.php');"

php -r "if (hash_file('SHA384', 'composer-setup.php') === '55d6ead61b29c7bdee5cccfb50076874187bd9f21f65d8991d46ec5cc90518f447387fb9f76ebae1fbbacf329e583e30') { echo 'Installer verified'; } else { echo 'Installer corrupt'; unlink('composer-setup.php'); } echo PHP_EOL;"

php composer-setup.php --install-dir=/usr/local/bin --filename=composer

php -r "unlink('composer-setup.php');"

WARNING: Line two IS WHERE IT compares the hasH of the installer you just downloaded to a hard-coded value. The value specified in the script is the value for the current version of the installer as of this writing. If it fails, check the Composer Public Keys / Signatures page and get the latest version. Plug it into the script below and try again.

Windows user, change the --installdir= to a directory in your path.

Recommended Setup for Windows

If you are running Microsoft Windows, the instructions above will work for you as long as you use the proper install paths. You can however download ComposerSetup.exe from the Composer Introduction page. Execute this and it will install composer and set your path so that you can run composer from anywhere. You will have to close your terminal window and open a new one after the install for the path to be updated.

That’s it, you should now have Composer installed.

Composer installation Resources

* Composer Homepage
* Composer Introduction
* Download Composer
* Composer Public Keys / Signatures
15581 views · 4 years ago
How to install PHPUnit

PHPUnit is an essential tool for every PHP developers. It is one of those tools that every PHP developer should have installed in their development environment. The problems most first time PHPUnit developers run into are where to install it and how to install it. This quick guide will walk you through the process and answer both questions.

How do I install PHPUnit

The Easy Way

In your project’s root directory use this command.

composer require --dev phpunit/phpunit ^6.0


This command adds PHPUnit to your project as a development dependency. This is the absolute best way to install PHPUnit. It is the best way because this way the version of PHPUnit does not change unless you change it. We specified ^6.0 as the version which means we’ll get all the updates to the 6.0 branch but not 6.1. While BC breaks don’t happen often in PHPUnit, they have happened. If you have a globally installed version of PHPUnit and you upgrade it to a version that breaks BC, you have to go update all of your tests immediately. This is a lot of hassle if you have a lot of projects with a lot of tests. Keeping a copy of PHPUnit installed as a dev requirement in each project means that each project has its own copy that can be upgraded as necessary.

The Hard Way

In a command prompt regardless of where you are in your file system, use this command.

composer global require phpunit/phpunit ^6.0


On MacOS and Linux machines, this will install PHPUnit in ~/.composer/vendor/bin. If you add this directory to your path, then from any project, you can execute PHPUnit. However, as noted above, if you ever upgrade your globally installed packages then you will have problems.

composer global update


Run that when there is a new version of PHPUnit, it will be installed, regardless of whether this will break your existing unit tests on one or more of your projects. Windows users will need to locate the .composer/vendor/bin directory in your user’s home directory.

The “ZOMG why would you do it this way” Way

Here is the old-school use wget and move it into the correct position manually. You can do it this way, but you will have to take care of all upgrades manually as well. If you only have a single project on the computer and you never ever plan on changing the version of PHPUnit….nope, still better to usecomposer require --dev.

wget https://phar.phpunit.de/phpunit-6.0.phar


chmod +x phpunit-6.0.phar


sudo mv phpunit-6.0.phar /usr/local/bin/phpunit


phpunit --version


These instructions are of course for MacOS or Linux. Windows user won’t need to do chmod or sudo but will need a BAT file.

That’s it. One of those commands should get you a working copy of PHPUnit on your computer.

Resources:

* Installing PHPUnit
* Composer Introduction (For the Global option)

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